World War II US History
Skills Work - WWII You will explain a change or continuity that took place during the war compared to the era before the war. T – One thing that changed OR continued during World War II was… (present idea). E – For example, before the war … (present specific). E- Then, during the war … (present specific). No A statement required.
Topics - WWII • Economics • Women • African Americans • Japanese Americans • Mexican Immigrants
WWII Economy • War Mobilization • Industrial Expansion • Economic Impact (2) • War Bonds • Rationing (2)
War Mobilization “The Arsenal for Democracy” War Production Board – government takes over the US economy to produce war goods "The most important things in this war are machines and the United States is a country of machines." – Joseph Stalin
US Industrial Achievements • 299,293 aircraft (Japan 70,000) • 1,556 naval vessels • 5,777 merchant ships • 634,569 jeeps • 88,410 tanks (Germany, 44,000) • 6.5 million rifles • 2,383,311 trucks • 40 billion bullets
Economic Impact of the WWII • GNP increased from 99.7 Billion in 1940 to 211 Billion in 1945. • Corporate profits went from $6.4 billion in 1940 to $11 billion in 1944. • Farmers prices rose 50%. • Due partly to overtime, average worker earnings rose 65%, as the war provided jobs for 3.2 million new job seekers and 7.3 million others (half of them women) who wouldn't have worked otherwise
Women in WWII • Job opportunities • Rosie the Riveter • Pay inequity • Return home at the end of the war • Military service
African Americans in WWII Video • Fought in segregated units • Double V Campaign • Greater job opportunities
Japanese Americans in WWII • Anti – Japanese Hysteria(Video 12:05 to 16:40) • Executive Order 9066 – Japanese Internment • 110,000-120,000 interned in camps • About 80,000 were citizens • About 30,000 children Diary • Korematsu v. US (1944)
Impact of the War on Mexican Immigrants Background: • Mexican immigration increased in the early 1900s once Chinese and Japanese immigrants were no longer allowed in America • Continues into the 1920s with a demand for cheap labor, but ends with mass deportations in the 1930s during the Great Depression (including many US citizens) Bracero Program: • With the demand for cheap labor during WWII, the US and Mexico agreed to “import” temporary Mexican workers (roughly 70,000 a year during WWII) • Braceros were under strict control of the contractors • Zoot Suit Riots (1943)
Korematsu v. US (1944) • Background: • FDR had ordered all Japanese on the west coast to be moved to internment camps. • Legal Question(s): • Did the federal government deny due process to American citizens of Japanese descent ? • Legal Decision: • No (6-3) • Impact: • During times of crisis, constitutional rights are not absolute.
Pittsburgh Courier March 28, 1942 • . . . This is not a campaign waged by colored citizens alone; it is a campaign waged by all citizens, regardless of color. • Every thoughtful American realizes that the independence of this nation depends upon victory for our armies against the forces of totalitarianism abroad on a dozen fronts. • It is widely understood that at home democracy may perish unless every one of us is unusually vigilant. • If we are to have no democracy at home, it does not make a great deal of difference what happens abroad. • Victory for democracy abroad means beating the armies of Hitler, Mussolini, and The Mikado. • Victory for democracy at home means beating disfranchisement, racial pollution laws, residential segregation, economic discrimination based on color, Jim-Crowism, social and educational inequalities, and all efforts to curtail or abolish the safeguards of the Bill of Rights. • A Double V pin indicates allegiance to these high ideals for which great men have fought and died through the centuries that we might have a measure of freedom today
“Unfortunately in the land of liberty, I was born of Japanese parent; born in Seattle of a mother and father who have been in this country since 1901. Fine parent, who brought up their children in the best American way of life … Now that you can picture our thoroughly American background, let me describe our new home. The resettlement center is actually a penitentiary – armed guards in the towers with spotlights and deadly tommy guns, fifteen feet of barbed wire fences, everyone confined to quarters at nine, lights out at ten o’clock. The guards are ordered to shoot anyone who approaches within twenty feet of the fences. No one is allowed to take the two block long hike to the latrines after nine, under any circumstances… The foot and sanitation problem is the worst. We have absolutely no fresh meat, vegetables or butter since we came here. Mealtime queues extend for blocks; standing in a rain swept line, feet in the mud, waiting or the scant portions of canned wieners and boiled potatoes…