World War II The First Half of the War 1941 - 1943
I. After Pearl America Scrambled to Mobilize • Boosting American Morale • With the Pacific fleet in disarray, the U.S. was forced to watch the Japanese build a Pacific Empire • FDR was desperate for a victory to show that the U.S. would fight • Doolittle Raids • Japan was outside of our bomber’s range to attack • Or was it…? • The story… • Doolittle’s bombing was a great success, not in military terms, but in morale terms
Looking for someone???? Ha, ha, ha… I told you not to bring your damn plane!
Once Again (see WWI) the American Economy revved up for war • Many of the same themes as WWI • Production shifted to war materials • The government took greater control of the economy to manage it for war aims • Minority groups were called upon to contribute, which caused some tension because they hoped for equality in return
Part II. America’s Wartime Economy • Gov’t Oversaw the Economy • Rationing • Massive borrowing to finance the war Savings Bonds • Propaganda • Films Why We Fight • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mm3GsSWKyso&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active (start at 1:30) • American production boomed • In 1940 (pre war) America produced $100 billion worth of goods. In 1945 $220 billion. • Military aircraft produced in 1940 (pre war) 6,000. In 1943 85,000.
Interesting Side Note Keynesian Economics Won Legitimacy • Why? • New Deal gov. spending had weakened, but not ended, the Great Depression. World War II spending, much greater than New Deal spending, did. • After the war, most economists accepted Keynesian principles • Gov. should use its weight to minimize the business cycle
New Deal WWII
Part III. The Fighting WWII Teams Allies • Poland • Britain • France • Additions: • USSR • U.S. • China • and over 40 other countries Axis • Germany • Japan • Italy • 7 other small countries
Battle of the Atlantic (1941 – 1943) • Battle between Britain, U.S., and Germany over control of Atlantic Ocean • From 1941 to 1943 Germany dominated the battle using U-Boats to destroy cargo ships • By 1943 Allies were able to control the Atlantic • Convoys • New technologies • The Hedgehog • Catapult planes • Sonar • Significant because U.S. now able to safely provide supplies, weapons, soldiers to war in Europe
Struggle Over a 2nd Front • Germany launched the bulk of its military at the Soviet Union • America and Britain didn’t like the Soviet Union (Communist) but we hated Hitler more • Thus, Britain, America, and the Soviets formed an alliance • Starting in 1942 (after Pearl Harbor) Stalin desperately called on the Americans and British to invade Western Europe to open a 2nd front • This would divide Germany’s forces • America and Britain delayed • Why? • Our explanation An amphibious invasion is hard • A possible alternative? Do we really mind if the Soviets and Germans kill each other?
Southern Front (1942 – 1943) • Eventually Britain and France opened a second front in North Africa, and eventually on into Italy • Called “Operation Torch” • American General Eisenhower fought against German General Rommel (“the Desert Fox”). • See, Stalin, we opened a 2nd front, but… • …not exactly in the place most threatening to Hitler • The ALPS! • Allied victory, but long and slow
The Pacific • About a year after Pearl Harbor, America’s increased production allowed us to start to win battles in the Pacific against Japan • Rebuilt Pacific navy • Two key early battles • Coral Sea • Midway
Battle of Coral Sea (1942) • five day battle where the Japanese were trying to take over Australia • Japanese vs. Americans & Australians • all fighting was done by planes • first time since Pearl Harbor a Japanese attack had been stopped
Battle of Midway (1942) • Japan wanted to seize this island near Hawaii • U.S. broke a Japanese code allowing us to successfully defend the island • the U.S. bombed and destroyed Japanese aircraft carriers, a cruiser, and 250 planes • turning point in War in the Pacific • led to the Island Hopping Campaign
Part I. After Pearl America Scrambled to Mobilize Boosting American Morale With the Pacific fleet in disarray, the U.S. was forced _______________________________ ________________________________________ FDR was ________________________________ to show that the U.S. would fight ______________________ Japan was outside of our _______________________ Or was it…? The story… _______________________________________ _________________________________________________ Doolittle’s bombing was a great success, not in __________ , but in ____________________ Once Again (see WWI) the American Economy revved up for war Many of the same themes as WWI Production _______________________________ The government ___________________________ _____________________ to manage it for war aims __________________ were called upon to contribute, which caused some tension because they _________ ____________________________________________ Part II. America’s Wartime Economy Gov’t Oversaw the Economy _______________________ Massive _____________________ the war Savings Bonds Propaganda Films ________________________ American production boomed In 1940 (________) America produced $___________ worth of _______. In 1945 $_____________. Military aircraft produced in 1940 (pre war) ______. In 1943 ___________. Interesting Side Note ______________________________ ______________________ Why? New Deal gov. spending had ____________________ _________________ , the Great Depression. _______ ________________________ , much greater than New Deal spending, ___________. After the war, most economists accepted Keynesian principles ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ Part III The Fighting World War II Teams Allies Poland, Britain, France, _________________ ____________________________________________ Axis powers Germany, Japan, and Italy _______ Battle of the Atlantic (1941-1943) Battle between _________________________ over control of Atlantic Ocean From 1941 to 1943 Germany dominated the battle using _______________________________ By 1943 Allies were able to control the Atlantic Convoys- ____________________________ ____________________________________ New technologies __________________ Catapult planes Sonar - ________________________ Significant because U.S. now able to ______________ _____________________________ to war in Europe Struggle over ___________________________ Germany launched the bulk of its military at ________ __________________________________________ America and Britain didn’t like the Soviet Union (Communist) but ______________________________ Thus, Britain, America, and the Soviets formed ___________________ Starting in 1942 (________________) Stalin desperately called on the Americans and British to ___________________to open a 2nd front This would _________________________ America and Britain delayed Why? Our explanation _______________ _______________________________ _______________________________ A possible alternative? Do we really mind if _________________________ ______________________________? Hansen Name ___________________U.S. History Period __________________Lecture #3- The First Half of WWII (part a)
Southern Front Eventually Britain and France opened a second front in North Africa, _______________________________________ Called ___________________________ American General ________________ fought against German General Rommel (“the _____________”). See, Stalin, we opened a 2nd front, but… …not exactly in the place most threatening to Hitler ________________________ Alliedvictory, but _______________ The Pacific Front About a year after Pearl Harbor, America’s ____________ _______________ allowed us to start to win battles in the Pacific against Japan ____________________________ Two key early battles Coral Sea Midway Coral Sea five day battle where the Japanese were ___________ ________________________________________ Japanese vs. Americans & Australians all fighting was ______________________ first time since Pearl Harbor a Japanese _________ _________________________________________ Midway Japan wanted to seize this island near Hawaii U.S. _________________________ allowing us to successfully defend the island the U.S. bombed and destroyed Japanese aircraft carriers, a cruiser, and 250 planes _________________________________________ led to the Island Hopping Campaign- ___________ __________________________________________