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World War II

World War II

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World War II

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  1. World War II

  2. What do you know about World War II? Take 5 minutes and list any and all facts and ideas you know about World War II.

  3. Let’s Review… • What were the causes of World War I? • Who fought in the war? • What was fighting like? • Who won? • What was the treaty that officially ended the war?

  4. The Treaty of Versailles

  5. Treaty of Versailles • What other points were in the treaty?

  6. The League of Nations • One of Wilson’s 14 points was the League of Nations, which was an international organization whose main goal was to promote peace and prevent war. • The U.S. opted not to join the organization and instead practiced isolationism.

  7. A Weak League of Nations

  8. The Rise of Dictators & Militarism

  9. Mussolini in Italy • Italy despite being a member of the winning side of WWI, did not see many gains. • Unrest began to grip the country in the 1920s. • Benito Mussolini founded the Fascist Party in 1921, which believed a strong military-dominated government should control all aspects of society. • Armed with his army of Blackshirts, he had the Italian king appoint him prime minister

  10. Stalin in the Soviet Union • Vladimir Lenin died in 1924. This left power up for grabs in the communist nation. • Joseph Stalin took the opportunity to siege power from his opponents. • He turned the Soviet Union into a totalitarian state, a country where the government has complete control. • He instituted collectivization for Soviet farms and increased industry • During the Purge of the 1930s, Stalin killed millions of accused opponents.

  11. Hitler in Germany • Adolf Hitler and his Nazi Party gained 40% of the 1932 popular vote in Germany. • He became Chancellor and began to rebuild Germany. • He blamed Jews, Communists, and intellectuals for Germany’s decline.

  12. Hitler in Germany • Hitler called his Fascist government the Third Reich. • He had dictatorial power and used his storm troopers, known as Brownshirts, to crush and political opposition. • Hitler also made anti-Semitism, or hatred of Jews, official government policy.

  13. Why would Germans go along with this??????

  14. Hitler speech

  15. Franco in Spain • A Civil War broke out in Spain in 1936 between Loyalists and Fascists. • General Francisco Franco led the fascists and were able to take control of the government with aid from Germany and Italy.

  16. Militarists in Japan • Japan’s military gained increasing power in the 1920s as they wanted to lessen Japan’s reliance on foreign imports. • Japan wanted raw materials in order to keep their empire growing.

  17. War Breaks Out

  18. The Response to European Fascism • In 1936, Hitler and Germany remilitarized the Rhineland. • Response: Britain & France did nothing; U.S. – practiced neutrality & isolationism. • In March 1939, Hitler’s army occupied Czechoslovakia. • Response: Britain & France practice appeasement, which is the giving in to demands in order to keep peace. • Stalin signs nonaggression pact with Hitler where both agreed not to attack one another.

  19. Appeasement….

  20. The War Begins • The war officially began on September 1, 1939 when Germany invaded Poland. • Germany practiced Blitzkrieg, or lightning war. • Germany invaded France in May 1940 and was able to destroy the Maginot Line, which was a line of defenses along the French border with Germany.

  21. The Blitz • Britain now stood alone against the Axis Powers, which was a military alliance between Germany, Italy, and eventually Japan. • Britain had a new Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, who stood ready to stop further German advancement. • Germany began the Blitz. • The Blitz was the sustained bombing of Britain from June 1940 – May 1941

  22. The Blitz

  23. What is your opinion on the policy of appeasement? Write a one paragraph response to this question.

  24. America’s Response

  25. Neutrality? • FDR looked to amend the neutrality act and allow the U.S. to ship military supplies to help countries under siege. • The new law allowed the U.S. to ship military supplies to any nation; however, the supplies had to be shipped on foreign vessels.

  26. Lend-Lease • The U.S. felt a natural connection with Britain, and therefore aided them more. • Britain did not have the money to pay for the supplies so Congress passed the Lend-Lease Act, which appropriated $7 billion dollars for ships, planes, tanks, and other supplies to non-Axis countries

  27. Political Cartoon AssignmentYour assignment is to create a political cartoon depicting America’s response to the violence and war erupting around the globe and its attempt to remain neutral. Be as creative as possible.

  28. Relations with Japan become shaky • While Germany was taking over land in Europe, Japan was building an Asian Empire. • Japan’s expansion was coming into direct conflict with U.S. interests in the region. • FDR froze all Japanese assets in the U.S. and enacted a trade embargo with the aggressive nation (no gasoline). • The Japanese demanded the embargo be lifted and began plotting an attack on the U.S.

  29. “A date which will live in infamy” • Despite sending peace negotiators to Washington, the Japanese launched a surprise attack on the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii on December 7, 1941. • The base was home to an anchored U.S. Pacific Fleet. • The attack was a devastating blow to the U.S. destroying several warships, aircraft, and killing over 2,400 people. • 1,103 of the killed sailors are still entombed in the USS Arizona

  30. USS Arizona Memorial

  31. USS Arizona Memorial

  32. U.S. Joins the War • On December 8, 1941, the U.S. declared war on Japan. • A few days later, war was declared on Germany and Italy and once again the U.S. found itself involved in world war.

  33. Early War in Europe & the Mediterranean

  34. Germany Invades Russia • After securing its western border, Germany invaded Russia in 1941. • The invasion reached as close as 40 miles from Moscow.

  35. Battle of Stalingrad • The Germans were trying to reach the oil fields of southern Russia in the summer of 1942. • The Soviets and Germans met at the city of Stalingrad. • After a harsh winter, the Nazis were forced to surrender in February 1943. • The tide of the war in Eastern Europe began to shift and the Soviets desperately wanted the British and Americans to open up another front.

  36. North Africa – the Desert War • Italian forces had invaded North Africa in 1940 but were dealt heavy blows from the British. • Hitler sent them reinforcements including General Erwin Rommel, nicknamed the Desert Fox. • Rommel had pushed as far as El Alamein, Egypt in July 1942, and was ready to take control of the Suez Canal in order to gain control of the oil fields of the Middle East. • The British, under General Bernard Montgomery, pushed Rommel’s troops out of Egypt, which became a turning point for the Allies in the North African campaign.

  37. Battle of the Atlantic