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  1. Cells Cytologists Welcome

  2. The Micro and the Macro World • Antony van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723)

  3. Size variation Cell Size range Most Cells

  4. Cell Biology • 1665 - Robert Hooke - cork cells

  5. Hooke was reminded of the small rooms or “cells” in a monastery.

  6. Cell Biology • 1805 - Lorenz Ohen - cell theory • All living things originate from, and are made of cells • Spontaneous Generation debunked • 1835 - Matthias Schleiden – Botanist • & Theodor Schwann – Zoologist - Schleiden - all plants are made of cells and the cell is the basic unit of tissue function - Schwann - all animals are composed of cells • 1859-Rudolf Virchow - “Ommia cellula e cellula” • “All cells come from cells”

  7. Cell Theory • All living things are composed of cells • New cells are produced from preexisting cells. • Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things • What happens on the Macro Level happens on the Micro Level

  8. Prokaryotes Cells that have genetic material that is not contained in the nucleus, No membrane bound organelles All bacteria Eukaryotes Contain a nucleus in which their genetic material is separated from the rest of the cell, Membrane bound organelles Most life forms Cells • Archaean • Mixture of prokaryotic & eukaryotic characteristics, with some unique properties

  9. Kingdom Archaea •   The archaea very much resemble bacteria, so much so that they were once thought to be a weird group of bacteria. However, by studying archaeal cells on a molecular level, scientists have now come to think that these "weird bacteria" actually are a separate category of life altogether. In fact, in some ways, archaea are more like you than they are like bacteria!

  10. Archeaens Distinctives -Extremophiles • Many archaeans thrive in conditions that would kill other creatures: boiling water, super-salty pools, sulfur-spewing volcanic vents, acidic water and deep in Antarctic ice. These types of archaea are often labeled "extremophiles," meaning creatures that love extreme conditions.

  11. Cell membrane Cytoplasm Cell membrane Cytoplasm Prokaryotic Cell Nucleus Eukaryotic Cell Organelles

  12. General Archaean Structure

  13. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Vacuole Ribosome (free) Chloroplast Ribosome (attached) Cell Membrane Nuclear envelope Cell wall Nucleolus Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Rough endoplasmic reticulum Plant Cell Organelle – specialized organs, “little organs”

  14. Ribosome (attached) Ribosome (free) Nucleolus Nucleus Cell Membrane Nuclear envelope Mitochondrion Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Rough endoplasmic reticulum Centrioles Golgi apparatus Animal Cell

  15. Cell Wall Chloroplasts Prokaryotes Eukaryotes Nucleus Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Lysosomes Vacuoles Mitochondria Cytoskeleton Cell membrane Contain DNA Animal Cells Plant Cells Cell membrane Ribosomes Nucleus Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Lysosomes Vacuoles Mitochondria Cytoskeleton Centrioles

  16. Organelles in Plant & Animal Cells • Nucleus – contains nearly all the cells DNA with coded instructions for making proteins and other important molecules. • Nuclear envelope – surround nucleus, composed of two membranes, allow materials to move in and out of the nucleus

  17. Organelles in Plants & Animal Cells • Chromatin – DNA bound to protein, material you can see in the nucleus • Chromosomes – condensed chromatin, contains genetic information that is passed from one generation to the next • Nucleolus – where assembly of ribosomes begins

  18. Organelles in Plants & Animal Cells • Ribosomes – make proteins • Endoplasmic reticulum – assemble lipids of the cell membrane, along with proteins and other materials that are exported from the cell • Rough ER – contains ribosomes on the outside of the ER Smooth ER – ribosomes are not found of the surface of the ER

  19. Organelles in Plants & Animal Cells • Golgi apparatus – modify, sort and package proteins and other materials from the ER for storage in the cell or secretion outside the cell, the “UPS guys” of the cell

  20. Organelles in Plants & Animal Cells • Lysosome – digestion or breakdown of lipids carbohydrates and proteins into small molecules that can be used by the rest of the cell. • Vacuoles – store materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates. • Mitochondria – powerhouse of the cell, contain own DNA, endosymbiotic theory, possible descendent of ancient prokaryotes

  21. Organelles in Plants & Animal Cells • Cytoskeleton – support the cell, involved in maintaining shape and involved in movement Microfilament – threadlike structures made of protein called actin, framework of cell, help with movement Microtubules – hollow structures made up of protein, maintain cell shape, important in cell division help build projections from the cell surface such as cilia, flagella Cell membrane ER microtubule microfilament ribosomes mitochondria

  22. Organelle in Plants Only • Chloroplasts – captures the suns energy from sunlight and convert it to chemical energy in a process called photosynthesis

  23. Organelle in Animals Only • Centrioles – microtubules that aid in cell division

  24. Outside of cell Carbohydrate chains Proteins Cell membrane Inside of cell (cytoplasm) Protein channel Lipid bilayer Structure of the Cell Membrane Cell membrane – regulates what enters and leaves the cell, lipid bilayer, mosaic of different molecules

  25. Cell Wall • Cell Wall - in plants only, provides protection and support for the cell

  26. PLANTS Chloroplasts Large vacuoles Cell wall No centriole Does not usually have lysosomes ANIMALS No chloroplasts Smaller vacuoles No cell wall Centriole Lysosomes Plants v. Animal Cells

  27. Diffusion Through Cell Boundaries Glucose molecules Diffusion – particles tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated until they reach equilibrium, no energy required Protein channel High Concentration Cell Membrane Low Concentration

  28. Osmosis Osmosis – diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane

  29. Facilitated Diffusion • Facilitated Diffusion movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels, does not require energy, only if there is a higher concentration of a particular molecule on one side than the other side

  30. Molecule to be carried Energy Molecule being carried Active Transport • Active transport - requires energy, low concentration to high concentration • Endocytosis • Phagocytosis • Pinocytosis • Exocytosis

  31. Phagocytosis

  32. Cell Specialization Cell Specialization – cells throughout an organism can develop in different ways to perform different tasks. Unspecialized Cells – cells must perform all of the tasks needed for survival

  33. Levels of Organization Muscle cell Smooth muscle tissue Stomach Digestive system Atom – Molecule - Organelle – Cell –Tissue – Organ – Organ System - Organism

  34. Examples Nervous, digestive Brain, stomach nerves, muscle neuron, smooth muscle cell Organelles, nucleus Water, sugar, fat Oxygen, carbon Proton, electron

  35. Ratio of Surface Area to Volume in Cells Section 10-1 Cell Size Surface Area (length x width x 6) Volume (length x width x height) Ratio of Surface Area to Volume Limits to Cell Growth – cannot move nutrients and waste through the cell, “DNA overload”

  36. Enzymes • a protein that does a special job • lock and key theory, specific fit • effected by temp. pH concentration… • Can build or break down molecules • Catalyze reactions

  37. Catalyst – speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction

  38. Chapter 9 The Cell Cycle and Cellular Reproduction

  39. M phase (Mitosis) Interphase G1 phase S phase G2 phase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Concept Map Cell Cycle includes is divided into is divided into

  40. During Interphase (S phase), each chromosome is replicated, consisting of two identical “sisters” or sister chromatids. • Centromere attaches the sister chromatids.

  41.  The Cell Cycle G1 phase M phase S phase G2 phase