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Cells PowerPoint Presentation

Cells

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Cells

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Presentation Transcript

  1. Cells Structure and Function

  2. Introduction to cells • Cell Theory • all living things are composed of one or more cells • cells are the basic units of structure and function in an organism • cells come only from existing cells

  3. Size limited by outer surface area and volume why is this important? Shape form reflects function nerve cells skin cell Internal Organization internal structures organelles cell membrane nucleus Eukaryotes plant animal Prokaryotes Cell Diversity

  4. Organelles mitochondrion ribosome endoplasmic reticulum golgi apparatus lysosome Microfilaments cillia nucleus vacuole plastid Parts of the Eukaryotic Cell

  5. Mitochondria • Transfers energy from organic compounds to ATP • ATP drives most of the chemical reactions that occur in the cell • more in cells that have high energy requirements

  6. Ribosome • Most numerous organelle • assemblage of two organic compounds • protein and RNA • Free or attached • two parts

  7. Endoplasmic Reticulum • Membranous tubules and sacs • intercellular highway, path for molecules to move from one part of the cell to another • two types • rough • makes protein • smooth • steroids • calcium levels • liver breakdown

  8. Golgi Apparatus • Packaging, processing and secreting • system of membranes • modifies proteins for export

  9. lysosomes • Small spherical organelles that enclose hydrolytic enzymes • early development • digestion • old organelles • viruses • bacteria

  10. cytoskeleton • Maintains shape and size • network of long protein strands located in the cyotsol • Microfilaments • actin • muscle contraction • microtubules • spindle fibers

  11. Cilia and flagella • Hair like organelles that extend from the surface of the cell • play a role in movement • Cilia • short and present in large numbers • line cells • Flagella • long and less numerous • whipping back and forth

  12. Nucleus • Nuclear matrix • nuclear envelop • chromatin • chromosomes • nuclear pores • nucleolus • ribosomes made

  13. Plant cells • Three additional structures • cell walls • vacuoles • plastids

  14. Cell Wall • Made of cellulose • pores in structure allow for transport of ions and molecules • Lies outside the cell membrane • helps support and protect the cell • secondary wall • between primary and membrane • stops growth • wood

  15. Vacuoles • Fluid filled organelles • store enzymes • metabolic waste • can occupy up to 90% • apple

  16. plastids • Two membrane bound organelles • Store • starch • fat • pigments • types • chloroplasts

  17. chloroplast • Thylakoid • flattened membranous sacs • sunlight is converted into chemical energy • give leaves and fruit and flower color

  18. Tissues organs organ systems Evolution of Multicellular organism colonial organisms specialized in performing functions cell in cell Multicellular Organization