Gallery Walk • Walk around the room as class begins. • Interpret the various charts to remind yourself of the advantages and disadvantages of the North and South in the Civil War.
Learning Targets • I can analyze the causes, conduct, and consequences of the Civil War. • I can evaluate Lincoln as a president and leader during the Civil War. • I can explain why the Union won the Civil War.
Ft. Sumter (April 12, 1861) Opening Battle of the War
Northern Advantages Southern Advantages
Southern Disadvantages Northern Disadvantages
First Bull Run (July 21, 1861 Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson
The “Anaconda Plan” Total Blockade of the South
Lincoln and Civil Liberties Suspension of “habeas corpus” – the presentation of evidence during trials; suspension of trial by jury
Lincoln and Civil Liberties President Abraham Lincoln who used military commissions to prosecute thousands of anti-Union judges, journalists, and legislators; threatened to arrest Chief Justice Taney(Library of Congress)
QQ • Why might many European governments of the time support the Confederate states over the Union?
South relies on cotton to finance the war, dependent upon English purchases and support King Cotton
British Support of the Confederacy Blockade runners; the Alabama
Promise of recognition Supplies and diplomatic support The Trent Affair Confederate diplomats captured by US ships; England threatens war unless released British Support of the Confederacy
Mobilizing the Home Fronts • Confederate mobilization • government arsenals supply Confederate armies • efforts to finance lead to runaway inflation • transportation system inadequate • Northern mobilization • finance war through taxes, bonds, paper money • private industry supplies Union armies well
First Draft for the Confederacy April, 1862
The Draft First Union military draft: June, 1863 Results in widespread draft riots in July, 1863
Antietam and the Emancipation Proclamation Sept. 17th – single bloodiest day in US history Lincoln in need of a victory to maintain support for the war Possible British recognition Lincoln at Antietam
Antietam and the Emancipation Proclamation Gen. George McClellan narrowly defeats Robert E. Lee; fails to follow up and destroy Confederate Army
Allows Lincoln to issue Proclamation Antietam and the Emancipation Proclamation Results of the Battle of Antietam: Defeat of Southern invasion; McClellan’s failure to destroy rebels prolongs war; fired for incompetence No foreign recognition Allows Lincoln to issue Proclamation
Who is freed by the Proclamation? • What is Lincoln’s motivation for issuing the Proclamation?
The Emancipation Proclamation “That on the first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free…excepted parts, are for the present, left precisely as if this proclamation were not issued”
Reasons for issuing the Proclamation: abolitionist pressure to prevent British involvement renewed war commitment The Proclamation
The Emancipation Proclamation Why were some freed and some not: Influence of the Border States
Desperate US needed a cause Unpopular in parts of the North, led to desertions Noble Lincoln frees the slaves Allowed US to use black Americans in the War Two views of the Proclamation
Vicksburg • Control Miss. R. • Splits Confederacy in two.
1864 Election Politics during the War: opposition to Lincoln from Peace Democrats (“Copperheads”)
1864 Election Copperheads opposed the War, seen by many as Southern sympathizers; wanted to negotiate an end to war
1864 Election Democrats nominate George McClellan, ex-general fired by Lincoln runs on “peace platform”
1864 Election Republicans merge with “War Democrats” to form Union Party; Lincoln chooses Andrew Johnson as VP runs on “stay the course” platform
1864 Election Key event: fall of Atlanta to William T. Sherman convinces North that war could be won; Lincoln wins
Appomattox Courthouse (April 9, 1865) Lee signs surrender; generous terms
Results • 620,000 deaths, over 1m. Casualties • Slavery abolished • 15 billion (1.5 trillion today) • Ideas of nullification and secession die • Foundation for 2nd Industrial Revolution
Results: • Gov. financing • National Banking System • First Income Tax • First paper currency • Economy: • First Millionaire Class • New factories & labor saving machinery • Transcontinental Railroad
Results: Continued • Westward expansion spurred • Homestead Act of 1862 • Morrill Land Grand Act of 1862 • Pacific Railway Act (1863) • Demise of Cotton Kingdom
Reading Quiz • Name two important results of the Battle of Antietam. • Explain Sherman’s main goal in his “March to the Sea” and how he achieved that goal. Give one specific example from the reading that was not mentioned in lecture. • Lincoln fired McClellan from the Army. Why was he not rid of him until 1864? • Why did the South lose the Civil War according to this author?