The Civil War-April 12, 1861-April 9, 1865 • THE BEGINNING • April 10, 1861, Confederacy orders surrender of Fort Sumter (S.C.) • April 12, Confederate troops fire on Fort Sumter.
Preparations for War • Both, North and South began training troops and gathering supplies. • Number of seceded states rose to 11 by start of war. VA, NC, TN, AK followed the original 7 • MO, KY, MD, and DE all remained in Union, but allowed slavery (border states)
Lincoln called for volunteers to only serve for 90 days. War lasted 1, 458 days. After 1st year recruits asked to enlist for 3 yrs. • By summer 1861, Confederacy had 112,000 soldiers and union had 187,000. • By end Confederacy had 850,000 and union 2.1 million. • Union: 200,000 black soldiers, and 10,000 Hispanic.
Northern Advantages • Superior RR system • 75% nation’s wealth • Control of sea • Industrial capacity • Access to overseas supplies and markets • 4 times as many people
Larger army • More war ships • Better banking system (raise money) • Abraham Lincoln (great and wise leader)
Southern Advantages • Large territory • Well trained officers • Robert E. Lee • Fighting for independence • Didn’t need victory, only a draw • Defensive Strategy
Public opinion in the north was divided on war. • Many northerners believed south would win based on American Revolution • Strong support of white population to war.
Conditions in North • 22 million people • Strong, well trained army • Manufactured weapons • RR built to carry heavy loads of manufactured goods • Industrial society • 23 northern and western states • Smooth functioning governments • Able to get into war quickly
Conditions in South • 9 million people (3 1/2 million slaves) • No strong navy or trained army • Didn’t manufacture guns or ammunition. • RR built to carry light loads of farm products.
Soldiers CIVIL WAR SOLDIERS
Nicknamed Johnny Reb and Billy Yank • Usually under 21 • 25,000 were 16 yrs. Old or younger • Most came from lower economic group (not slave owners) • Most were not well trained in military.
The Union usually wore Blue uniforms and the Confederacy wore Gray. • Many did not have official uniforms and many were hand made. • Some soldiers did not receive uniforms and therefore only wore everyday clothing.
Each branch had different colored trim on uniforms. Ex: Artillery had red trim, Infantry-blue, cavalry-yellow. • Soldiers carried knapsacks to hold any paper, pictures, books, and toilet articles. Some carried these items wrapped in blankets. • Also carried a musket and a leather box for ammunition.
Union soldier’s usually ate better than southern soldiers because they were able to get supplies easier than the south (blockades) Each side received daily rations, or portions of food. Ex: 20 ounces of beef, 2.56 ounces of dried beans, 1.6 ounces of green coffee, 2.4 ounces of sugar, and .64 ounces of salt. Many had to depend on food from the woods or taken from farms.
Some of the weapons included: Bowie Knife, bayonet, field cannon, grenades, land mines, musket, navel mines, navel swivel cannon, pistol, revolving rifle, revolver, rockets, Gatling gun.
Civil War Firsts
Other firsts: • Railroad artillery • Submarine • “snorkel” breathing device • Periscope for trench warfare • Land-Mines • Field Trenches
Flame Throwers • Wire entanglements • Military telegraph • Navel torpedoes • Antiaircraft fire • Repeating rifles • Telescopic sights for rifles • Long-range rifles
Organized medical and nursing corps • Hospital ships • Army ambulance corps • Legal voting for servicemen • U.S. secret service • Income tax • Tobacco tax • Cigarette tax
The Medal of Honor • Corps of press correspondents in battle areas • Photography of battle • Negro U.S. Army Officer (Major M.R. Delany) • American President assassinated • Department of Justice (Confederate)
Union Strategies Blockade Strategy: Obstruct all Confederate ports and seize the Mississippi river. Was put into place to stop south from selling cotton and from getting supplies. Seizing Mississippi was to split the Confederacy in half leaving Texas, Arkansas, and Louisiana stranded. This was the Anaconda Plan.
Capture of Richmond: This plan failed because Robert E. Lee was able to hold off Union armies. Destroy Cities: This plan was very successful. The plan was to burn and destroy every city and town so that civilians would stop supporting the war. Ex: Sherman’s march through GA.
Confederate Strategies Wear down the North: South thought that many casualties would wear the north down. Destroy the Blockades: Used ironclads and subs to sink the Union’s wooden ships. Also used raiders (fast ships) to get past blockades.
King Cotton Diplomacy: Stop selling cotton to England and France and eventually they would come and help south win to keep receiving cotton. It did not work.
Emancipation Proclamation On Sept. 22, 1862 Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation. This stated that unless the south surrendered by January 1, 1863, “all slaves in states and districts in rebellion against the United States on Jan. 1, 1863 will be thenceforth free.” If south had of surrendered, slavery would not have ended at this point.
Bull Run: Also called the battle of Manassas because it was located at Manassas, Virginia. This was the 1st major battle of the Civil War. Both sides were not well trained. Stonewall Jackson (Confederacy) became famous during this battle. The Confederacy won, and the Union realized that this would not be a quick war. Many civilians came to watch the event Confederacy did not continue on to capture Washington D.C.
Antietam: The bloodiest one-day battle. Fought near Antietam Creek in Sharpsburg, MD. About 6,000 died and 17,000 wounded. Neither army was defeated. Robert E. Lee’s orders were found by a Union soldier, but George McClellan the Union General was still not able to defeat the south, so Lincoln fired him and replaced him with General Ambrose Burnside.
Gettysburg: Occurred in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. Robert E. Lee attempted to break through and head to Washington D.C. • 3 things affected the battle: 1. neither side had whole army when battle began. • General J.E.B. Stuart and his cavalry had gone in another direction.
James Longstreet failed to join Lee . • Estimated that 23,000 Union and 28,000 Confederates died. This was a 3 day battle.
Georgia Battles Fort Pulaski: On Tybee Island off the coast of Savannah. First area to see action in GA. On Jan. 3, 1861 Confederate Troops captured it. In April 1862, Union took it back, after the commander refused to give it up. A day and a half battle took place.
Chickamauga: Located 7 miles south of Chattanooga TN. Braxton Bragg was the famous commander for the south. He did not allow the North to advance into GA. This was one of the bloodiest battles of the war. Bragg mistakenly did not follow the Union army and push them further from GA. This allowed Sherman to later advance into GA
Sherman’s immediate goal was to capture Atlanta (transportation center of south) • He met resistance in Dalton, Resaca, and New Hope. • Because of the resistance it took Sherman 4 months to reach Atlanta. • Sherman was pushed back at Kennesaw, but eventually advanced on.
After remaining in Atlanta for 2 months, he began his march to the sea, cutting a path sixty miles wide and 300 miles long, destroying everything in the path. • On Dec. 24, 1864, Sherman gave Lincoln a gift of the city of Savannah. • Now the lower south was cut off from the rest of the confederacy.
On April 9, 1865, General Lee surrendered to General Grant of the Union at Appomattox Courthouse in Virginia.
Terms of Surrender • All officers and enlisted men in the Confederate army would be paroled. • All military equipment and weapons had to be relinquished to the Union.
Cost of the War • The war cost the U.S. government about $2 million per day or about $6 billion total. • The south spent about $4 billion on the war effort. • Around 620,000 soldiers died in the Civil War