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Civil War

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Civil War

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  1. Civil War

  2. What were the causes? • Slavery • Economic systems- agricultural vs. industrial • States rights/the nature of the union • Control of the central government

  3. Slavery • Moral issue • The most clear division b/n the North and South • At the heart of most of the issues that divide the North and South • BUT: • Majority of southerners did not own slaves • Most northerners were not abolitionists • Lincoln and republicans did not threaten slavery where it existed • 4 slave states will remain loyal to the union

  4. Economic Systems • Debate over tariffs • Debate over slavery

  5. States rights/nature of the union • Should states have the right to choose their economic system • Should states have the right to break away and form their own government if they want to?

  6. Control of the Central Government • Which region would have more control in the Senate? ***The election of Abraham Lincoln was the even that immediately caused secession. Southerners felt that Lincoln’s election was a sign that they would NEVER get what they wanted in the US government again. Lincoln was elected in Nov.—SC seceded in Dec.

  7. How did the War begin? • Firing at Ft Sumter • Confederacy: • Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia • Border states: • Slave states that chose to remain in the Union • Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware

  8. Early Battles of the Civil War • Campaigns and Battles, 1861-1862 • The early battles of the Civil War were relatively evenly matched on land, but the Union’s navy dominated water battles • Gen. Winfield Scott- named General in Chief of the US Army

  9. First Battle of Bull Run (Manassas)July 1861 (VA) • Summary • Battle showed the strength of the Confederate military and the weakness of the Union army • Confederate Army led by Beauregard and “Stonewall” Jackson (got that name here) • Union army appeared to be winning, but panicked and retreated when Stonewall Jackson launched a counterattack

  10. First Battle of Bull Run (Manassas)July 1861 (VA) • Defeated the Union after the first “rebel yell” • Union suffered about 2,900 casualties • Confederates less than 2,000 • People realized war would not end quickly and would be costly, battle increased Confederate troops morale • Winfield Scott resigns and is replaced with Gen. George McClellan

  11. First Battle of Bull Run (Manassas)July 1861 (VA) • McClellan is an effective leader because he’s a perfectionist- will not act unless the conditions are perfect • McClellan resigns as a leader in Nov. 1862

  12. Naval Operations • Union army proved itself superior to the Confederacy • April 1862- New Orleans is captured • Naval blockade of Southern ports was highly successful

  13. Battle of Shiloh: April 6-7, 1862 (TN) • Summary • One of the deadliest battles of the Civil War. Shiloh was a Union victory where they gained crucial territory that allowed them a starting point for future attacks • April 6, 1862-Confederate army attacks a Union stronghold • Grant (union) army wins, but there were 24,000 casualties in all • 13,000 Union/ 11,000 Confederate

  14. Battle of Shiloh: April 6-7, 1862 (TN) • Bloodiest single battle ever in North America up to that point • Paves the way for a Union advance to Memphis and eventually Vicksburg

  15. May 1862: Robert E. Lee placed in control of the Confederate Army • Given Control when: • Gen. Joseph Johnston was wounded during the Peninsular campaign • Strengths: Bold risk taker, had a strong ability to predict the plans of his opposition and gain the devotion of his men • Gen. Jeb Stuart was placed in charge of reconnaissance • These two men increase the success of the Confederate army

  16. 2nd Battle of Bull Run (Manassas) August, 1862 (VA) • Summary: Lee leads a second defeat of the Union army which led him to change his strategy • Lee divided his army and sent Jackson’s troops north around the Union position. After marching 50 miles in 2 days, they struck behind Pope’s army destroying some of his supplies at Manassas • Union army was defeated

  17. 2nd Battle of Bull Run (Manassas) August, 1862 (VA) • After the battle, Lee decided to invade the North • Lee’s decision marked a change in southern strategy • Lee hoped a victory in the North would convince European countries to support the Confederacy and turn public opinion in the North against the War

  18. 2nd Battle of Bull Run (Manassas) August, 1862 (VA) • Sept. 1862, Lee’s army crossed into western Maryland • McClellan did not know where Lee was until a soldier found a copy of Lee’s orders • McClellan then pursued Lee

  19. Battle of Antietam: Sept. 17, 1862 (MD) • Summary: Even though technically a draw, the Battle of Antietam was a prime example of the Union leadership’s inability to act and take risk in battle • The two armies met at Antietam Creek on Sept. 17

  20. Battle of Antietam: Sept. 17, 1862 (MD) • Lee had about 40,000 troops, McClellan had about 75,000 with 25,000 more in reserve • First three hours 12,000 soldiers were killed or wounded • By the end of the day Union casualties,12,000; Confederate casualties, 14,000 • Antietam became the bloodiest single day of the war

  21. Battle of Antietam: Sept. 17, 1862 (MD) • Lee retreated back to VA • 1st defeat of Confederate forces in the East • McClellan failed to pursue the fleeing Confederate troops and end the war- As a result, Lincoln replaced him with Ambrose Burnside

  22. Tide of the war turns

  23. Importance of 1863 • After McClellan's failure to follow Confederate troops as they retreated from Antietam, Lincoln replaced him with Gen. Burnside •

  24. Battle of Fredericksburg: Dec 13, 1862 (VA) • Summary: Again, the Union struggles with leadership. At Fredericksburg, Gen. Burnside used a strategy of reckless attack that was even more damaging than McClellan's’ cautious victory • In 1862, Burnside advanced to VA w/ 122,000 men that faced off with Lee’s 79,000 men

  25. Battle of Fredericksburg: Dec 13, 1862 (VA) • Lee organized his troops along a ridge known as Mayre’s Heights overlooking the town (took the high ground and waited for the Union to come to them) • Burnside decided to cross directly in front of Lee’s forces • Some Union units lost over ½ their men • Overall Union casualties totaled 13,000; Confederate 5,000 • Burnside resigned and was replaced by Joseph Hooker

  26. Battle of Chancellorsville: May 1-3, 1863 (VA) • Summary: this battle highlighted Lee’s strength as a military leader and allowed him to move northward to Gettysburg • • Gen. Hooker planned to move around Fredericksburg and attack Lee’s position from the rear • April 1863, Hooker left a token force at Fredericksburg and took the rest upriver

  27. Battle of Chancellorsville: May 1-3, 1863 (VA) • Stuart’s Confederate Calvary discovered Hooker’s force • Lee divided his force and sent more than 40,000 soldier west to meet Hooker • May 1, 1863 as Union troops started toward Fredericksburg, they were attacked by Confederates and Hooker retreated into thick woods and built defenses •

  28. Battle of Chancellorsville: May 1-3, 1863 (VA) • Lee divided his force again • Sent Stonewall Jackson and 26,000 men on a 12 mile march around the Union army • Jackson attacked in late afternoon, but the attack as halted by darkness • Jackson was mistakenly shot by his own men • Stuart took command and completed the Confederate victory the next day • ***After Union defeats at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, may northern leaders began talk of making peace with the South

  29. Battle of Gettysburg: July 1-3, 1863 (PA) • Summary: Gettysburg proved an impt. turning pt. for the war b/c they were able to permanently stop Confederate movement into the North • •

  30. Battle of Gettysburg: July 1-3, 1863 (PA) • Lee hoped that a Confederate victory on northern soil would convince the Union to give up the War • July1, Confederate troops entered Gettysburg PA looking for shoes. They encountered Union Calvary. Shots were exchanged • Hearing gunfire, units from both armies began rushing into Gettysburg • Union and Confederate forces faced off along hills on both sides of Gettysburg

  31. Battle of Gettysburg: July 1-3, 1863 (PA) • Lee decided to attack Union forces despite advice from Gen. Longstreet not to. • Events of the battle: • July 2- Longstreet was not ready to attack until 4 pm, allowing George Meade, the new head of the union army to bring in reinforcements • Early afternoon July 3, about 150 Confederate cannons began the heaviest artillery barrage of the war

  32. Battle of Gettysburg: July 1-3, 1863 (PA) • Lee ordered an infantry assault on the center of the Union lines • About 15,000 soldiers marched more than a mile of open ground • Only a few hundred made it to Union lines • The unsuccessful attack became known as Pickett’s Charge, though George Pickett was only 1 of 3 Confederate commanders • July 4- Confederate troop retreated • Gettysburg was the bloodiest battle of the war • Casualties: Confederacy, 28,000; Union 23,000

  33. Battle of Vicksburg: Mid May – July 4, 1863 (MS) • Summary: Under the strategic brillance of Gen. Grant, the Union army took control of the entire MS River and opened the door for eastern campaigns • From Dec 1862 to April 1863, Grant made several unsuccessful attempts to capture Vicksburg • Vicksburg is located on a bluff above a bend in the MS R

  34. Battle of Vicksburg: Mid May – July 4, 1863 (MS) • Mid April, Grant marched his troops south on the LA side of the river and crossed south of Vicksburg • He then moved east to attack Jackson, MS • Confederate troops commanded by John Pemberton left Vicksburg to meet Grant’s attack • May 16- Union and Confederate troops met at Champion Hill, ½ way b/n Jackson and Vicksburg

  35. Battle of Vicksburg: Mid May – July 4, 1863 (MS) • Grant won, but the Confederate army escaped back to Vicksburg • Grant begin a siege of Vicksburg • Union began artillery bombardment of 300 guns, which averaged 2800 shells/day • Residents dug caves • Food was in short supply • July 4, Confederate troops surrendered

  36. Gettysburg Address • Nov 19, 1863 a cemetery was dedicated to Union soldiers who had died in the Battle of Gettysburg • Lincoln gave a two minute speech, which became known as the Gettysburg Address – one of the most famous documents in American history

  37. Final military events

  38. Final Military Events • The final Union campaigns effectively ended the war, but the campaigns left behind death, ravaged land and destroyed Confederate morale

  39. Grants Takes Command • March 1864, Ulysses S. Grant took command of all Union forces • William T. Sherman took command of Union troops in the west • Grant’s goal was to end the war before the Presidential election in November 1864 • Through a series of battles, Grant used the North’s superiority in industry and population to wear down the Confederate army

  40. Capture of Atlanta • Sept 2, 1864- Wm. Sherman marched into Atl. The confederate army w/drew from the city • “Atl is ours, and fairly won”~ William T. Sherman, Sept.2, 1864 • Later in Sept. Sherman burned 1/3 of the city in order to break Confederate supply lines and destroy Confederate morale

  41. Sherman’s March to the Sea • November 1864, Sherman began a march to Savannah w/ a plan to destroy anything and everything which might benefit the Confederacy • “War is cruelty, there is no trying to reform it. The crueler it is, the sooner it will be over”~ Wm. T. Sherman • Destroyed all buildings, rr, plowed salt into fields (visceration) • Dec 22, Sherman entered Savannah w/out a fight • At the same time, Union troops destroyed the state of SC, which they blamed for starting the war

  42. Election of 1864 • Republicans re-nominated Lincoln, but not VP Hannibal Hamlin • Democrats chose George McClellan who wanted to make peace with the South • Lincoln was sure he was going to be beaten • Capture of Atlanta changed public opinion in favor of Lincoln • Lincoln won easily • Feb. 1865, Congress passes the 13th amendment that banned slavery. Became a law Dec 6, 1865

  43. End of the War • Feb 1865, Sherman left Savannah and began moving north • Wanted to destroy the South’s remaining resources and crush Southerner’s remaining will to fight • Feb 17- Sherman’s forces burned Columbia, SC • Lee realized that he couldn’t protect Richmond- his army had shrunk to only about 35,000

  44. End of the War • Lee tried to avoid Sherman’s army and failed • April 9, Lee’s army arrived at Appomattox Courthouse and was instantly surrounded by Union troops • Lee decided to surrender- April 9, 1865 • Terms of surrender allowed Confederate troops to return home promising never “to take up arms against eh US”

  45. Lincoln’s Assassination • April 14, 1865 • John Wilkes Booth assassinated Lincoln while he viewed a play at Ford’s theatre • Left a political vacuum in the North- removed the consistent leadership in the North

  46. Long term consequences

  47. What are they? The Civil War would forever change the US politically, economically and socially The war finally ends by May 1865- by then all Confederate troops had surrendered and Jefferson Davis had been captured 1865- 13th Amendment adopted- abolished slavery

  48. What are they? • Focused the nation on industry in the North, rather than agriculture in the South • Next 50 years, there was no president from the South • Only 5 Supreme Court Justices from the South since the Civil War • South’s share of national wealth fell from 30% before the war to 12% after the war

  49. What are they? • More Americans died in the Civil War than all other US wars combined • Am. Revolution- 4,000 • WWI- 115, 000 • WWII- 313,000 • Vietnam- 56,000 • Civil War 469,000

  50. What are they? • 40% of all soldiers who participated in the Civil War died • More died of disease than from battle wounds • High casualty rate for participants because of new weapons, strategy and disease