Civil War April 12, 1861- Attack on Fort Sumter
Call for 75,000 Volunteers North (24) Buchanan- Crittenden Comp. following 1860 Election Lincoln- Inauguration (Mar. 3) “Not interfere w/ Slavery” Lincoln- Attempts to resupply Fort Sumter Lincoln- Call for troops to Suppress Rebellion(90 day) Answering the Call- Battle Hymn of the Republic! Battle Cry of Freedom! South (11) Feb. 1861- form Confederacy from 7 Southern States /SC J. Davis- South confiscates US Property all over the South Confederates- fire on the Fort forcing its surrender Upper South- Virginia, Tenn., KY, & Ark. Secede (Apr. 17) Answering the Call- The Bonnie Blue Flag!Dixiland!!
North vs. South ! • Population (20.3 vs. 9 + 4 million) • Products and Industry (92 vs. 8/ 110,000 vs. 21,000) • Ships and Navy (90% vs. 10%) • Railroads (22,000 vs. 9,000 miles) • Farms and Food (Staple vs. Cash Crops) • Iron Production (93% vs. 7%) • Banking (Legal Tender Act/Greenbacks/80 vs. 9000%) • Government and Leadership (Lincoln ! vs. Davis) • Military Experience, Geography, Allies, Mission
First Modern War ! Weapons • Rifles/Bullets • Cannons • Ironclads Strategies • North & South: Fast victory = Surrender • Bull Run: Plans Change- War of attrition • North vs. South: Anaconda/ Defense
First Battle of Bull Run! • South Wins: Stonewall stands firm - don’t take DC • North: Lincoln call for 500,000 soldiers (Militia Act) • Conscriptions & Bounty’s: Large Causalities (4,600) • Lincoln: replaces McDowell with McClellan • South digs in while North trains new recruits
Anaconda Plan Attrition- The act of wearing down your enemy.
War on the Water • North: Blockades the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts • South: Blockade Runners smuggle goods in & out • South: Ships operate in foreign waters (Fl. & Al.) • North: Farragut takes New Orleans April 1862 • Hampton Roads: Monitor vs. Merrimack(Va.) draw • North: Attempt to secure Mississippi R. (Land/Sea)
Battles in the West! • US Grant: captures Ft. Henry & Ft. Donelson (Tenn) • Grant: Shiloh causalities 20,000 killed & wounded • Union: Victory at Chattanooga (Buell Beats Bragg) • Stalemate: Murfreesboro (Rosecrans vs. Bragg) • Question: Why was the Union fighting in the West
North v. South Battle Cry of Freedom!Dixiland! Goober Peas!
Casualties of War! • A "casualty" is a person lost through death, wounds, injury, sickness, internment, capture, or through being missing in action. • Most casualties and deaths in the Civil War were the result of non-combat-related disease (3:5). • In less than two years casualty totals were over 200,000. (End over 700,000) Question: How did this effect support for & the ability to fight the war? • Modern casualties include those who have been psychologically damaged by warfare (PTS) disorder.
TOTAL WAR EFFECTS Social- Families torn apart, Women fill-in, Injured return home, Low Moral Political- North faced more turmoil (Copperheads), Lincoln v. McClellan(1864), Draft Riots South- remained loyal to the cause but questioned sacrifices & political leadership (Desertions) Economic- US production meets the demand while the South struggles (Food & Military supplies) Riots Advancements- Military & medical advances prove costly, Women & AA’s take on new roles(nurses/troop) Inflation- US monetary system is relatively stable while the South’s collapses
War in the East ! • McClellan: Peninsular Campaign fails (Richmond) • Union: 30 days to capture Yorktown (too slow) • South: Robert E. Lee replaces Joseph E. Johnston • Seven Days Battles: Lee inflicts heavy casualties on the Union Army. Lincoln orders McClellan’s retreat. • Lee: Attacks 2ndManassas & Antietam (McClellan)
The Bloodiest Day ! Sept. 17, 1862- Lee battles McClellan R.E. Lee- invades Maryland (Why???) • Convince North to give up • Win recognition from the British • Peace Democrats gain seats in Congress (1864) • Get needed food and resources from North (capture) 16,000 wound 6,000 dead
Emancipation Proclamation ! • Issued Sept. 1862(effective 1/1) • Free slaves in Confed. States • Loyalty to Border States • Hurt South’s chance for Alliance
Fredericksburg (Dec 1862) General A. Burnside: leads the Union Army (120,000). Sends his forces to Falmouth (near Fredericksburg). Lee entrenched his army (78,000) on the heights behind the town On December 13 the Union mounted a series of frontal assaults. Casualties CSA- 5,300 vs. USA-12,600. On Dec. 15, Burnside called off the campaign. Lincoln fired him & hired Joseph Hooker
Siege of Vicksburg In May to June of 1863, Maj. Gen. U.S. Grant’s armies converged on Vicksburg. (70,000) Surround the city & trap the CSA army under Gen. John Pemberton. (30,000) On July 4 1863, Vicksburg surrendered after prolonged siege operations. The loss of this army & transportation hub on the Mississippi effectively split the Confederacy in half. Grant's successes in the West boosted his reputation, led to his appointment as General-in-Chief of the Union armies.
Gettysburg July 1-3 63’ • Lee invades the North after win at Chancellorsville 5/63’ • Lincoln replaces Joe Hooker with General George Meade • Day 1- CSA forces capture the town/US army hold the hills • Day 2- CSA fails on the flanks (Clup’s, Big/Little Round Top) • Day3- Pickett’s Charge fails to take Cemetery Ridge • Meade allows Lee to retreat
Grant vs. Lee ”Whatever happens, there will be no turning back” • Grant first attacks in the spring of 1864 • Wilderness- Fought to a draw/ Grant moves South • Spotsylvania Courthouse- 11 day battle/ indecisive • Cold Harbor- CSA Victory/ Casualties 1,500 to 7,000 • Petersburg- Grant’s Victory Siege (June 64-Apr. 65)
“I could cut a swath to the Sea • William T. Sherman takes command of the West • August 1864 US forces surround & captured Atlanta • “To end the war … make the old and young, rich and poor , feel the hard hand of the war” • US Troops set fire to everything of military value • November- goes to Savannah • Burn, loot, & pillage • December- capture Savannah
Surrender & Assassination • Election of 1864- Lincoln defeats McClellan (13th) • Grant traps Lee at Appomattox Courthouse (surrendered- April 9th 1865) • Terms- US will not prosecute soldiers for treason • Ford’s Theater- Lincoln is shot by John Wilkes Booth & the President dies April 15th 1865 • Q- How will the Nation be brought back together??