Civil War Was it really civil?
What does “civil” mean? • “Civil” • Adjective • 1[ attrib. ] of or relating to ordinary citizens and their concerns, as distinct from military or ecclesiastical matters: civil aviation.• (of disorder or conflict) occurring between citizens of the same country.• Law relating to private relations between members of a community; noncriminal: a civil action.• Law of or relating to civil law. • 2courteous and polite: we tried to be civil to him. • 3(of time measurement or a point in time) fixed by custom or law rather than being natural or astronomical: civil twilight starts at sunset.
Southern States Secede • Democratic party split in two—Northern and Southern • Southern Democrats voted for Breckinridge • Nation was fragmented • Lincoln’s 1860 election proves catastrophic • Elected as a Republican • SC leads 6 others to form the Confederate States of America—Jefferson Davis became their president
War Begins Lincoln assures seceded states that he means no harm in his inaugural address Seceded states ignored Lincoln’s warning and took over post offices, forts, and other federal property within their borders
Fort Sumter • In April, Confederate artillery opened fire on the fort • 34 hours later, the fort surrendered after it had burned to the ground Located on an island outside Charleston, SC SC planned to starve the fort’s 100 troops into surrender
No One Wanted War Neither the North nor South wanted the war, but both agreed it was inevitable “Both parties [condemned] war, but one of them would make war rather than let the nation survive, and the other would accept war rather than let it perish, and the war came.” -Lincoln, Second Inaugural Address, 1865
M ore States Secede Lincoln asked the states to raise 75,000 troops Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina joined the Confederacy 50 counties in the western part of VA refused to secede, so they became West Virginia Kentucky declares itself neutral—Lincoln respects its boundaries, but the Confederacy invades, which pushes KY to the Union Lincoln holds MO and MD by force
What is a “troop”? Even though it sounds like a “troop” is a group of soldiers, it actually refers to ONE soldier. A fort with 100 troops contains 100 soldiers. Weird, right?
Advantages South • Home field advantage • Local Help • Nation’s most experienced officers (Albert Johnston, Joseph Johnston, Robert E. Lee) North • 110,000 of 130,000 factories in the North • 2x railroads & 2x farms • 2/3 of the nation’s population • More resources (feed, train, and equip more forces)
Strategies South • Defend land until North tires or runs out of supplies (defensive war) • Seek aid from Britain (they hoped Britain’s need for cotton would make them support the South) North • Navy blockade of Southern seaports • Gain control of the Mississippi River • Invade Virginia and seize Richmond (the Confederate’s capital)
A Soldier’s Life • Meals consisted of “hardtack,” a dry cracker Soldiers regularly contracted smallpox and typhoid fever It was not unusual for half a regiment to be too sick to fight on any given day
10% of all deaths occurred in prison camps • Overcrowded and undernourished • Andersonville prison housed 35,000 Union soldiers in a fenced field intended to hold 10,000
Martial Law In Sept, 1863, Lincoln imposed Congressionally authorized martial law Suspended habeas corpus for “prisoners of war, spies, or aiders and abettors of the enemy.” (held without being charged, but not tried without being charged) Supreme Court ruled it unconstitutional in areas where local courts were still in session in Ex parte Milligan (1866).
New Technology & Weapons Greater accuracy of weapons Ironclads—warships covered with protective iron plates Union’s Monitor and Confederacy’s Merrimack were in an epic battle in March 1862.
First Battle of Bull Run • Union General McDowell’s 30,000 men marched into Virginia • Confederates held firm • “Look, there is Jackson with his Virginians, standing like a stone wall,” shouted a Southern commander. • Thomas Jackson was from then on known as Stonewall Jackson • Union soldiers and sightseers fled back to Washington, D.C. • Confederates claimed victory
Commander in Chief South Jefferson Davis Robert E. Lee (military advisor) Braxton Bragg (military advisor) Robert E. Lee (general-in-chief) North President Lincoln Generals-in-Chief: (in chronological order) Winfield Scott George McClellan Ambrose Burnside Henry Halleck Ulysses S. Grant
McClellan’s Slow Eastern Advance McClellan, put in command after McDowell’s defeat at Bull Run, was very slow in advancing toward the enemy Moved his troops toward Richmond but was held back by the Confederates in May 1862 Retreated from Richmond Lee decided to invade the North—slipped into MD in early September McClellan’s officer found Lee’s battle plan and learns that the Confederacy has divided into 2 parts
Antietam McClellan attacked the larger part of Lee’s army near Antietam Creek in MD Bloodiest battle of the Civil War Union suffers 12,000 casualties; Confederates lose 14,000 Lincoln’s mad about McClellan’s cautious behavior McClellan messes up by not pursuing the retreating Confederate army North claims victory because of South’s retreat Lincoln replaces McClellan with Burnside
“Side” Note: Burnside Ambrose Burnside, who was pretty much forced into being a commander in the army (Lincoln wouldn’t take “no” for an answer) was a generally poor general. One thing he did change forever, though, was the term for a ridiculously long trail of hair going down the sides of his face. These patches of hair became known as “sideburns” after Burnside’s last name.
Grant’s Risky Western Advance Grant was risky, fast-moving, and very unlike McClellan Grant seized control of the Mississippi River and captured Fort Henry and Fort Donelson
Battle of Shiloh Grant’s forces are surprised by Confederate General Albert Sidney Johnston on April 6, 1862 See pg. 522-523 in text book
Decisive Battles Fredericksburg Chancellorsville Gettysburg Vicksburg
Fredericksburg Burnside wants to come in fighting—he orders charge after charge at Fredericksburg against Lee North loses 13,000 South loses 5,000
Chancellorsville General Hooker marched his Union army toward Richmond and was smashed by Stonewall Jackson’s forces at Chancellorsville. Stonewall Jackson was shot and died days later.
Gettysburg June 1863—Lee marches across MD and into PA. The Union army pursued. 85,000 Union soldiers face 75,000 Confederates Union lost 23,000+; Confed. lost 28,000+ “It’s all my fault. It is I who have lost this fight.” –Lee
Vicksburg Siege–a military operation in which forces surround the enemy, cutting off resources until they surrender As Lee’s shattered army retreated from Gettysburg, other Confederate armies surrendered to Grant in Vicksburg Grant surrounds Vicksburg in a siege that lasted six weeks Confederates surrender Union gets upper hand in war
Gettysburg Address • Read the Gettysburg Address in the Sourcebook • “…government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.” • --Lincoln • Speech to memorialize all those who had died in battle
Emancipation • When the war started, abolitionists urged Lincoln to end slavery to punish the South for starting war. • Lincoln refused. He knew most northerners didn’t want to end slavery. • “You overestimate the number in the country who hold such views” • Lincoln always watched the border states
Emancipation (cont’d) Lincoln’s #1 Goal: to restore the Union at all costs “If I could save the Union without freeing any slave, I would do it, and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves, I would do it…What I do about slavery…I do because I believe it helps to save the Union.” Lincoln gradually realized how important slaves were to the Confederacy’s war effort and changed his mind.
A Famous Proclamation After Lee’s retreat from Antietam, which you’ll remember was the bloodiest battle, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863. Little Effect The only slaves freed were ones in areas resisting Union control These were also the places where the Union had no power
Grant vs. Lee Grant decides that he needs to attack Richmond Grant surrounds Richmond as Sherman attacks and burns Atlanta Lincoln re-elected in a landslide Lee surrenders at Appomattox on April 9, 1865
Casualties 260,000 Confederates dead 360,000 Unions dead 500,000 wounded
African Americans Help • Not permitted to join Union at first • After EP, many joined the Navy and Army • 189,000 served • Black and white fought together in Navy, but blacks were segregated in the Army • “They make better soldiers in every respect than any troops I have ever had under my command.” --Union General said of African American regiment from Kansas
1st South Carolina Infantry The First black regiment to serve in the war Made up mostly of Sea Island Blacks, known as “Gullah”
54th Massachusetts Infantry “The bravest of the brave.” Comprised entirely of African American soldiers
Southern Slaves Impeded Confederate war effort by passing information to Union forces Refused to work on farms while their owners were away
Divisions & Disagreements • South • GA & NC largely did not support succession • Large slaveholding plantation areas vs. backcountry areas • North • Some blamed the North for forcing the war • Some believed South had a right to secede • Northern Democrats who opposed war were called “Copperheads” • Ohio, Illinois, Indiana had the most Copperheads
Draft Laws Desertion 300,000-550,000 soldiers left their units Half returned after their crops were planted/harvested Draft—South institutes it first for men aged 18 to 30 to give 3 years of service. Later, it expanded to 17-50. North followed with the draft for men aged 20-45
Wealth Rules In the South, a man who had at least 20 slaves did not have to serve Northerners could pay $300 to avoid the draft Both sides allowed draftees to hire substitutes Riots
Income & Inflation • Income tax—Congress levied the first income tax in 1861 • Union printed $400 million to pay its expenses (first federal paper money—currency) • Inflation—general rise in prices (80%) • Worse in South • A pair of shoes that cost $18 in 1862 cost $800 in 1864 • Profiteers—people who sold goods at elevated prices
Those Darn Females At least 400 women disguised themselves as men to serve Many women were spies Ran farms Factory work Government jobs (Confederate women signed and numbered currency)
Standouts Clara Barton Called “Angel of the Battlefield” Worked with the International Red Cross Began the first American Red Cross branch Dorothy Dix Campaigned for the underserved insane population Lobbied Congress to create the first insane asylums
Results Reunited the nation Ended slavery