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Civil War PowerPoint Presentation

Civil War

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Civil War

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Presentation Transcript

  1. Civil War Part 1

  2. Election of 1860 and secession winter • Abraham Lincoln’s name did not appear on the ballot in ten states • Lincoln won all free states except New Jersey • John C. Breckinridge, with a southern-rights platform, won the entire Lower South • Lincoln won in the Electoral College by 28 votes

  3. Secession of the Lower South Dec 1860-Feb 1861

  4. Confederate States of America • Also known as the Confederacy, was a government set up in 1861 by seven southern slave states that had declared their secession from the U.S.. • Jefferson Davis

  5. Upper South chooses sides • Would it fight against the Lower South or the Union? • Arkansas, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia joined the Confederacy • Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri • In the end 11 of the 15 slave states joined the Confederate States of America; four of the seceding Upper South states contained significant numbers of people who felt little affection for the Confederacy

  6. Attack on Fort Sumter • Spring 1861 occupied by 80 US soldiers • It is at the entrance to Charleston Harbor • For the south it represented the nation they had abandoned • For the North it was a symbol of federal sovereignty in the seceded states

  7. Davis sent Confederate troops to bombard the fort • Lincoln had to provision it, but did not send troops • For Jefferson Davis the territorial integrity of the Confederacy demanded the end of the US presence; • He sent troops against adviceof his colleagues

  8. Confederacy successful • Anderson surrendered • Lincoln called for 75,000 militiamen to serve for 90 days to put down the rebellion

  9. The Combatants North • Expecting to win • Lincoln strategy applied pressure at many points, and blocked the export and sale of the South’s cotton crop • Neither side predicted the magnitude and duration of the war • South believed it would triumph despite enormous advantages of the Union • South believed North was dependent on its cotton crop, • South believed cotton would make Europe its ally • Confederacy military strategy of the South to stay at home, blunt invasions, avoid battles that risk its army, and outlast the North’s will to fight South

  10. Bloody Missouri • Southern sympathizers roamed Missouri for the duration of the conflict • In the border states, it became a ‘brothers’ war” dividing families over the issue of slavery

  11. 1861-1862

  12. Mobilizing • At first it appeared the South had the advantage • Lincoln had little military experience but he made up for it with wise cabinet choices; his rhetorical skills roused the North • Davis turned out to be quarrelsome and proud and made some enemies

  13. Adversaries

  14. Confederacy made prodigious efforts to build new factories, but the Confederate army faced continual shortages • North repurposed already established resources and troops • Both sides sold war bonds and collected taxes to pay the huge costs associated with establishing a large army • Both sides had large numbers of volunteers, but the North had the advantage of established factories

  15. 1863-1865

  16. Navy

  17. Union Colored Infantry

  18. Ordnance

  19. Union Victories in West • Rivers key to military situation • Mississippi • Tennessee • Cumberland • Missouri Battle of Pea Ridge left the state free of Confederates army • Rebel failures in the far West meant there would be no Confederate empire beyond Texas

  20. ‘except by complete conquest’ • Principal western battles took place in Tennessee where General Ulysses S. Grant emerged as the key northern commander • Feb 1862 Grant captured Fort Henry on the Tennessee River and Fort Donelson on the Cumberland, forcing Confederates to withdraw from all of Kentucky and most of Tennessee • April, Union forces prevailed at the costly battle of Shiloh in Tennessee, and Grant realized the Union would not be victorious ‘except by complete conquest.’

  21. Atlantic Theater • Union Navy—three dozen ships on 3,500 miles of coastline • Eventually grew to 150 blockade ships • Confederates could not compete with a conventional Navy, so improvised, ironclad warship, and underwater vessels

  22. Ulysses S. Grant

  23. International Diplomacy • Confederates sought foreign help, hoping cotton-starved Europeans would help • No other country challenged the Union blockade or recognized the Confederate States of America as a nation • Lincoln announced that an alliance with the Confederacy was an alliance with slavery