Welcome to Psychology 112 Human Growth and Development Instructor: Evette Samaan Book: Craig, G. J. & Baucum, D. (2001). Human Development, 9th Edition. E-mail: Giseladora@AOL.com
History of Psychology • Psychology is a fairly new science. • Until the 19th century it was not recognized as a separate field of study. • The birth of psychology as a formal science can be traced back to 1879. • It was founded by Wilhelm Wundt in Leipzig, Germany. • The use of introspection
Defining Psychology • Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism’s physical state, mental state, and external environment.
What Mom Knows • 4 years of age – Mommy can do any thing! • 8 years of age – My mom knows a lot! • 12 years of age – My mother doesn’t really know quite everything! • 14 years of age – Naturally, Mother doesn’t know that either! • 16 years of age – Mother? She’s hopelessly old-fashioned!
What Mom Knows • 18 years of age – That old woman? She’s way out of date! • 25 years of age – Well, she might know a little bit about it! • 35 years of age – Before we decide, let’s get Mom’s opinion! • 45 years of age – Wonder what Mom would have thought about it! • 65 years of age – Wish I could talk it over with Mom!
Defining Lifespan Psychology • Lifespan psychology is the field of study that examines patterns of growth, change, and stability in behavior that occur throughout the entire life span.
Prenatal Infancy (0-2) Early Childhood (3-6 years) Middle Childhood (6-11) Adolescence (12-19) Early Adulthood (20-30’s) Middle Adulthood (35-45) Late Adulthood (60s-death) Age Groups in the Lifespan
What Constitutes a Good Theory • Provides a framework for unmanageable collections of information and then organizes around it, offering explanations • Provides testable predictions: • If we can predict with accuracy, we become more confident that we understand ourselves • Predictions give rise to further research that can refine or extend the theory.
Issues Relevant to Theories of Human Development 1- Active Versus Passive Development 2- Stages Verses Continuity in Development
1- Active Versus Passive Development 1- Organismic Theorists Emphasize active development. Argue that we are active participants in our own development 2- Mechanistic Theorists Emphasize passive development. We are driven primarily by our internal drives and motivations in conjunction with external pressures produced by the environment.
What Is the Best Answer? • Our active human minds interact with the forces of society and nature, and that interaction determines what we do and who we become.
2- Stages Versus Continuity in Development 1-Stages Development occurs “stepwise” in stages that are qualitatively different, so we achieve new ways of understanding our world quite abruptly. 2- Continuity Some changes are gradual and cumulative.
Lifespan PsychologyTheoretical Perspectives • 1- Psychodynamic Theories • 2- Behavioral Perspective • 3- Cognitive Perspective • 4- Biological Approaches • 5- Systems Approaches • 6- Humanistic Approach
1-The Psychodynamic Theories(You Are What You Were) Freud Psychoanalysis a- The Structure of Personality b- Psychosexual Stages c- Defense Mechanisms
Structure of Personality • Id: • Pleasure principle • Life & death instincts • Immediate gratification • Ego • Reality Principle • Superego • Ego Ideal: moral and social standards • Conscience: the inner voice
Psychosexual Stages • 1- Oral Stage (0-2) • 2- Anal Stage (2-3) • 3- The Phallic Stage (3-6) • 4- The Latency Stage (6-12) • 5- The Genital Stage (12-18)
Examine the life of a rapist in light of Freud’s Psychosexual stages and structure of personality. • What happened during each stage? • Was he fixated at any stage? • What principle does he operate by? • What structure of personality is dominant? • What is his famous sentence? • Describe him in one word. • Is there a balance between the function of the id and the superego? Why?
Defense Mechanisms • 1- Repression • 2- Projection • 3- Displacement • 4- Regression • 5- Denial • 6- Sublimation • 7- Reaction Formation
Describe the condition this person is in, in terms of: • Defense mechanisms • The condition he/she is in • Whether he/she is liberated • Whether he/she has a clear understanding of the concept of salvation and the new birth in Christ
I Like It Here They told me on the other side Of the raging River of Change, There is nowhere to hide. But it sounds a bit strange, Here my feelings are inside, My heart has a guarded gate, what’s in can’t go outside, And no one can investigate.
They told me on the other side Everything will seem clear, turning on the light inside Will make the dark disappear. But it is a long , long ride, No, thank you my dear, I need a place to hide. So, since I like it here, It’s here where I’ll reside.
Change, I truly don’t know, Why would I go to neverland Just that I may grow? Here I know where I stand, I know how things will go. Why must I leave my land Drop my act for a new show? Change is not drawing near, ’Cause I certainly like it here.
Erik Erikson (1909-1994)Psychosocial Stages 1- Trust vs. Mistrust (birth to 1 ½) 2- Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt (1 ½ -3) 3- Initiative vs. Guilt (3-6) 4- Competence vs. Inferiority (6-12) 5- Identity vs. role confusion (12-18) 6- Intimacy vs. Isolation (young adulthood) 7- Generativity vs. Stagnation (middle adulthood) 8- Ego Integrity vs. Despair (older adulthood)
Psychosexual stages 5 stages of development Sexual motivation If issues aren’t resolved, fixation occurs End: sexually mature adult (adolescence) Psychosocial stages 8 developmental stages Psychological and social motivation At each stage there is a crisis that must be resolved Development is an ongoing process Freud Erikson
What happened to these people? In which stage did the crisis occur? Someone who is insecure Someone with low self-esteem Someone with an inferiority complex Someone who’s shy Someone who is insecure about his sexual orientation Someone who has difficulty establishing healthy relationships Someone with a midlife crisis Someone who’s terrified of death
2- Behaviorism and Learning Theories 1- Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov 2- Operant Conditioning B.F. Skinner 3- Law of Effect Thorndike 4- Social-Learning Theory A. Bandura J. Rotter Tolman
BehaviorismClassical Conditioning • Pavlov • The environmental impact on behavior • Classical Conditioning • Stimulus/Response
Classical Conditioning in Real Life • Learning to like • Learning to fear • Accounting for Taste • Reacting to Medical Treatment
Operant Conditioning • The behavior is more likely or less likely to occur based on its consequences. • B. F. Skinner modified Pavlov’s concept. • Skinner used reinforcement and punishment to enhance learning.
Behavioral Techniques Learning Conditioning Association between Environmental Stimuli + Response Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Association Reinforcement/ Stimulus-Response Punishment
BehaviorismThorndike’s Law of Effect • Puzzle boxes and cats • Law of Effect A principle of learning theory stating that a behavior’s consequences determine the probability of its being repeated
The Social-Learning School(You Are What You Think & Observe) • 1- Locus of Control • Julian Rotter • 2- Self-efficacy • Albert Bandura • 3- Latent Learning • Edward Tolman
Internal (Internals) Tend to believe they are responsible for what happens to them External (Externals) Tend to believe that they are victims of luck, fate, or others Julian RotterLocus of Control
Choose Your Locus of Control • 1- a. Many of the unhappy situations are partly due to bad luck. b. People’s misfortunes result from mistakes they make. • 2- a. Becoming a success is a matter of hard work; luck has little or nothing to do with it. b. Getting a job depends mainly on being in the right place at the right time.
Expectations Affect What happens (environment & behavior) What happens Affect Expectations Reciprocal Determinism in Locus of Control
Albert BanduraSelf-efficacy Is Derived from: • Experiences in mastering new skills • Vicarious experiences provided by successful people • Encouragement and persuasion • Physiological and emotional state
Belief in your abilities Affects What happens to you (Behavior & environment) What happens to you Affects Your belief in your abilities Reciprocal Determinism in Self-efficacy
Genesists You will be disposed to seek out situations that let you express your biologically influenced trait. You are an active person then you play sports Social Cognitive Theory You will seek situations in which you believe you can behave a certain way. You believe you’re good in sports then you play sports Biology Belief
3- The Cognitive Perspective Piaget Cognitive Development Vygotski Social-Cognitive Information Processing Theory
PiagetConstructivism Children think and learn in ways different from adults. They process information in quantity and quality All that we know of reality is based on our mental constructions or ideas We don’t passively discover ready-made knowledge, we actively construct knowledge
Piaget 1- Knowledge = motor behavior 2- Universal stages in a fixed order 3- Qualitative and quantitative acquisition of knowledge 4- Mental Structures or schemes 5- Two Principles: Assimilation Accommodation
PiagetMental functioning Assimilation What you do when you fit new information into your present system of knowledge or mental schemas (categories of things and people) Accommodation Changing and modifying your new schemas