What is poetry???? • One of the three major types of literature (with prose and drama) • Most poems make use of concise, musical, and emotionally charged language • Alive with imagery, figurative language, and sound devises.
Poetry Terms • Verse – a line of poetry; often numbered • Stanza – a group of verses (or lines of poetry) Stanzas are similar to paragraphs in prose. • Shape – the way a poem looks on a page
VERSE Blank Verse Free Verse • Poetry written in unrhymed iambic pentameter (a series of stressed and unstressed syllables) • Used by Shakespeare • No rules! • Mimics spoken word • Many opportunities for interpretation! • Uses imagery • Most modern poetry is written in free verse
TYPES OF POEMS • LYRIC – musical; expresses observations and feelings of a single person • NARRATIVE – tells a story • DRAMATIC – a poem that uses the techniques of drams (such as dialogue)
TYPES OF POEMS, con’t. • FIXED – poems that follow a specific form • Ballad – songlike poem that tells a story; written in stanza form with regular rhythms and rhyme schemes and featuring a refrain • Haiku – Japanese poem that conveys a vivid emotion or captures a moment in time; 5-7-5 syllables • Sonnet – 14 line lyric poem
Musical Devices…… • Alliteration – repetition of beginning consonant sounds • Assonance – repetition of same vowel sound within words • Consonance – repetition of final consonant sounds • Onomatopoeia – words that imitate sound • Wet, windy, weather on Wednesday • I feel alive in the sunlight. • Do not sit on the hat, please. • The bells went “ding dong ding”
Alliteration The repetition of the initial consonant sounds or words
Assonance Vowel rhyme; the repetition of vowel sounds in nearby words Ex: date, fade Consonance Repetition of consonants within nearby words in which the preceding vowels differ Ex: milk, walk
Poetry Terms – Musical Devices • Meter – the rhythmical pattern of a poem, determined by the number and types of stresses, or beats, in each line. • Rhyme – words that sound alike: hat/cat • Rhyme Scheme – the pattern of rhyme Jack and Jill a Went up the Hill a To fetch a pail of water b
Terms….con’t • Repetition – repeating a word, several words, or whole lines: “And miles to go before I sleep. And miles to go before I sleep.” • Rhythm – brings out the musical quality of the language; can create mood and empathize ideas
Repetition Repetition Repetition Use of any language element more than once
Figurative Language Words NOT meant to be taken literally! • Simile – comparison using “like” or “as” “Life is like a box of chocolates.” • Metaphor – a direct comparison of two unlike things “He was a raging bull, screaming loudly”
Metaphor To compare two things (without using like or as), suggesting a commonality between the two
Figurative Language, cont. • Personification – when an animal is given human qualities or an inanimate object is given living characteristics Mickey Mouse The sun smiled gently down on us.
More…… • Hyperbole – exaggeration for a special effect (for emphasis or humor) They cried buckets over the loss of their pet. They fell out of their seats laughing.
Personification Language that attributes human qualities to non-human things. The tree stretched its limbs to reach the sky
Imagery Words that appeal to the senses that “paint” a picture….uses Sensory Language, words that appeal to the five senses…. “Imagine a luxurious, less complicated lifestyle. Imagine open fields and cool running water. Imagine hearing the soft chirping of birds outside your window. Now, this is living!”
Descriptive language used to create word pictures or images (paint a picture in your mind)
THEME • The message of the poem • The lesson the poet is teaching the reader