Welcome!* Get out your Homework – Ch. 3.3 Notes to be checked.* Get ready to Take NOTES!!No Food, Drink, Gum or Water!!Do not doodle on the tables!!
Steps to Civil War Events leading to war Economic Differences in North & South Missouri Compromise Compromise of 1850 Kansas-Nebraska Act Dred Scott Lincoln Douglas debates Lincoln elected president
From the beginning the North and South evolved into different types of societies and economies. The hope was that they would be able to work together and stay united.
The south with its rich fertile soil, long growing seasons, and large, slow moving rivers became mostly agrarian.
The north with its thin, rocky soil, short growing seasons, and fast running smaller rivers evolved into a manufacturing region..
For this industrial economy they relied on a large labor pool fed by immigration from Europe.
In 1819 the Missouri Territory was being considered for admission into the United States. The problem arose when it was suggested in Congress that slavery be restricted in Missouri as a condition of admission.
At the time, there were an equal number of slave states and free states in the Union. The admission of Missouri, whether slave or free, would upset the balance of power that existed between these rival factions in the Senate.
Provisions of The Missouri Compromise 1820 • Missouri was to be a slave state • Maine was to be a free state • There was to be no slavery in the Louisiana territory north of latitude 36 degrees 30 minutes except in Missouri.
Henry Clay the Great Compromiser The issues which thrust him into the political limelight were the Missouri Compromise, the banking issues, opposition to Andrew Jackson, and promotion of his American System.
Most important of these was the negotiation of the Missouri Compromise which was fundamental in maintaining American unity, providing a workable sectional policy regarding slavery expansion, and a western policy.
John Calhoun A senator from South Carolina who calls slavery a positive good, is powerful, has a strong southern following and will be a major leader in the fights for nullification and secession.
Daniel Webster A Senator who is considered one of the greatest orators of his time. He made his last speech to save the Union. He agreed to compromise....and agreed to the fugitive slave law as part of the compromise of 1850.
Compromise of 1850 • California is admitted as a free state. • New Mexico and Utah will become territories. • A fugitive slave law will be enforced and runaway slaves who make it to free states must be returned to their owners. • Slaves may no longer be bought and sold in Washington D.C. but slavery will still be legal.
Kansas Nebraska Act On January 4, 1854, Stephen A. Douglas, wanting to ensure a northern transcontinental railroad route that would benefit his Illinois constituents,
introduced a bill to organize the territory of Nebraska in order to bring the area under civil control.
But southern senators objected; the region lay north of latitude 36°30 and so under the terms of the Missouri Compromise of 1820 would become a free state.
To gain the southerners' support, Douglas proposed creating two territories in the area—Kansas and Nebraska—and repealing the Missouri Compromise line.
The Know Nothing’s Ideal American The question of whether the territories would be slave or free would be left to the settlers under Douglas's principle of popular sovereignty.
Murder and Mayhem in Bleeding Kansas Peace Convention-Fort Scott, KS "...A stain that shall never bleach out in the sun! ..." John Greenleaf WhittierThe Marais Des Cygnes Massacrepublished September 1858
The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 established the territorial boundaries of Kansas and Nebraska and opened the land to legal settlement.
In Kansas, people on all sides of this controversial issue flooded the territory, trying to influence the vote in their favor.
Rival territorial governments, election fraud, and squabbles over land claims all contributed to the violence of this era.
John Brown in Kansas John Brown was a failed farmer and tanner from New England and a rabid Abolitionist.
Brown would end up involved in a bloody conflict in Kansas Territory between those who hated slavery and those who favored it.
The Sumner-Brooks Affair Abolitionist senator Sumner stood up in Congress and spoke for two days.
He called the Missourians murderous robbers and hirelings picked from the drunken spew and vomit of an uneasy civilization.
Then he insulted South Carolina’s Senator Andrew P. Butler and talked about South Carolina’s shameful imbecility.
Two days later Preston Brooks who was a cousin of Andrew Butler walked into the Senate and up to Sumner. He began beating him on the head with a gold-topped cane.
Sumner’s legs were trapped under the bolted down desk and he couldn’t move. He was almost killed.
He was absent 4 years because of his injuries. The Richmond Virginia Enquirer praised Brooks’ action and he received new canes from all over the south.
The Dred Scott Decision Dred Scott was a slave. His master took him from the slave state of Missouri to the free state of Illinois. Scott lived as a slave for four years in a free state.
Then his master took him back to Missouri. Abolitionists thought it was a good case to test slavery.
Abolitionists paid for a lawyer so Scott could sue his master for freedom.
The case went to the Supreme Court. On March 6, 1857 the court decided Scott had no right to freedom because he was property, not a person, and could be moved anywhere.
It also said it was unconstitutional for Congress to limit slavery anywhere.
Stephen Douglas: The Little Giant He was 5’ tall, born in Vermont, then moved to Illinois, he was a rich political leader, lawyer, businessman, who made a fortune in land speculation and railroads.
If the transcontinental RR went from Chicago to San Francisco his Chicago property would be more valuable but Indian territory west of Missouri, Iowa and Minnesota stood in the way.
“Honest Abe” the rail-splitter Abraham Lincoln an attorney from Springfield, Illinois, ran against Douglas for the Senate seat in that state
Lincoln-Douglas Debates 1858 They held a series of 7 debates where the candidates threw insults in the heat and cold and rain of frontier Illinois.
The issue between them was slavery. Douglas portrayed Lincoln as a fanatical abolitionist, a black Republican who wanted to put slaves on equal footing with whites.
Scene from a Lincoln-Douglas Debate in the Illinois Senate campaign of 1858
Freeport Doctrine Lincoln asks Douglas if people can keep slavery out of their territory if they don’t want it. Douglas says they can by not enacting slave codes. Douglas wins election to the Senate, but alienates the entire south
John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry John Brown and some of his sons lead a raid on the government arsenal at Harpers’ Ferry They believe that an “army of slaves” will rise up and join them in a revolution
John Brown's Last Prophecy Charlestown, Va, 2nd, December, 1859I John Brown am now quite certain that the crimes of this guilty, land: will never be purged away; but with Blood. I had as I now think: vainly flattered myself that withought very much bloodshed; it might be done. (John Brown's last letter, written on day he hanged. From "John Brown: a Biography,"