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Unit Six

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Unit Six

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  1. Unit Six International Marketing Information System and Research

  2. 营销信息的功能 •   (1)市场营销信息是企业经济决策的前提和基础 •   企业营销过程中,无论是对于企业的营销目标、发展方向等战略问题的决策,还是对于企业的产品、定价、销售渠道、促销措施等战术问题的决策,都必须在准确地获得市场营销信息的基础上,才可能得到正确的结果。 •   (2)市场营销信息是制定企业营销计划的依据 •   企业在市场营销中,必须根据市场需求的变化,在营销决策的基础上,制定具体的营销计划,以确定实现营销目标的具体措施和途径。不了解市场信息,就无法制定出符合实际需要的计划。

  3. (3)市场营销信息是实现营销控制的必要条件 •   营销控制,是指按既定的营销目标,对企业的营销活动进行监督、检查,以保证营销目标实现的管理活动。由于市场环境的不断变化,企业在营销活动中必须随时注意市场的变化,进行信息反馈,以此为依据来修订营销计划,对企业的营销活动进行有效控制,使企业的营销活动能按预期目标进行。 •   (4)市场营销信息是进行内、外协调的依据 •   企业营销活动中,要不断地收集市场营销信息,根据市场和自身状况的变化,来协调内部条件、外部条件和企业营销目标之间的关系,使企业营销系统与外部环境之间、与内部各要素之间始终保持协调一致。

  4. 宝洁公司和惠普公司的营销调研 •   宝洁公司安排营销调研人员到每一个产品部门,从事对现行品牌的调研。它有两个独立的公司内部调研小组,一个负责整个公司的广告调研,另一个负责市场测试。每组成员包括营销调研经理、其他专家(调查设计者、统计学家、行为科学家)和负责执行与管理访问工作的内部现场代表。每年宝洁公司电话与上门访问超过100万次,访问的内容涉及到大约1,000个调研项目。 •   在惠普总部设立的市场研究与信息中心(MRIC)处理营销信息。它分享全世界的惠普信息资源。该中心分3个组:市场信息中心提供行业、市场和竞争者背景资料,它应用报业辛迪加 (不同的报纸杂志,有偿共享新闻报道、新闻图片和专栏文章,从而打破各家媒体细分市场的格局,并形成规模,催生出优秀的新闻作品) ,和其他信息服务;决策支持小组提供研究结论服务;地区卫星的建立使全世界各地的惠普分部得到有创见意见的服务。

  5. 6.1 The Marketing Information System • MIS: 1. people, equipment, procedures • 2. gather, sort, analyze, evaluate and distribute • 3. needed, timely, and accurate information • 4. to marketing decision marker

  6. The Marketing Information System Marketing Managers Analysis Planning Implementation Organization Control Marketing Environment Target Markets Marketing Channels Competitors Publics Macro Environment forces Assessing Information Needs 评估信息需求 Developing Information Internal Records 内部档案 Marketing Intelligence 营销情报 Distributing Information Information analysis Marketing Research 营销研究 Marketing decision and communications

  7. 6.1.1 Assessing information needs评估信息需求 • 1. balances the information managers would like , what they really need and what is feasible to offer • 2. methods: • interview managers to find out what information they would like • watch the marketing environment for key marketing decisions • decide the cost and the value ( weigh carefully) • notice: too much information can be as harmful as too little. • In many cases, additional information will do little to change or improve a manager’s decision, or the costs of the information may exceed the returns from the improved decision.

  8. 6.1.2 Developing information 信息形成 • 1. primary & secondary information (source of information) • secondary information (be treated with care and caution): • features: more quickly ,lower cost, provide data an individual company cannot collect on its own • sources: government, international bodies, business, trade, professional, foreign embassies, trade missions and other • disadvantages: incomplete, ambiguous or out of context (specific use) • comparability difficulty ( compile in different ways in different countries ) • methodological and interpretive problems • nonexistent, unreliable or incomplete ---inter-country comparisons difficulty) • inflated or deflated (political purposes)

  9. primary information: refers to data that is collected for the first time during a marketing research study • features:longer, cost a lot • researchers must take great care to assure that it will be relevant, accurate, current and unbiased information • methods:

  10. 2. internal records, marketing intelligence, and marketing research • 1) internal records (most basic) • definition: information gathered from sources within the company to evaluate marketing performance and to detect marketing problems and opportunities ( financial statements, records of sales, cost and cash flows, etc.) • features: quickly , cheaply to get • incomplete, wrong form • Notice: great amounts of information requires information gathering, organizing, processing and indexing to make it easily and quickly found

  11. 2) marketing intelligence • definition: everyday information about pertinent developments in the marketing environment that helps managers prepare and adjust marketing plans. • method: sales force • a: motivate distributors, retailers, other intermediaries, even appoint specialists • b: purchases information from outside suppliers, e.g. Research firms • c: establish an internal marketing information center

  12. 3) marketing research • definition: formal studies of specific situations • function: links the marketer to consumers and the public through information • identify and define marketing opportunities and problems • generate, refine, and evaluate marketing actions • monitor marketing performance • improve understanding of the marketing process

  13. engaging in: market potential and market share studies • assessments of customer satisfaction and purchase behavior • studies of pricing, product, distribution, and promotion activities • The starting point of a marketing research project, of course, is the need for information with which to make a marketing decision.

  14. 6.1.3 Distributing information • The information gathered through different sources must be distributed to the right marketing managers at the right time, otherwise marketing information has no value until managers use it to make better marketing decisions.

  15. Decentralized marketing information systems: with advanced technology( computers, software, and telecommunication), marketing managers have direct access to the information network, obtain information from internal records or outside information services, analyze the information using statistical packages and models, prepare reports on a word processor or desk-top publishing system from any location, and communicate with others in the network through electronic communications, which enable the managers to get the information they need directly and quickly.

  16. 6.2 The Marketing Research Process Defining the problem Exploratory research Formulating A hypothesis Research design Collecting data Interpretation And presentation

  17. The term is commonly interchanged with market research; however, expert practitioners may wish to draw a distinction, in that market research is concerned specifically with markets, while marketing research is concerned specifically about marketing processes • Market research is broader in scope and examines all aspects of a business environment. It asks questions about competitors, market structure, government regulations, economic trends, technological advances, and numerous other factors that make up the business environment.

  18. 6.2.1 Problem definition • Requirement: clearly define • Problems are barriers that prevent the attainment of organizational goals, so a clearly defined problem permits researchers to focus the research process on securing the data necessary for solving the problem. • Notice: far more difficult; researchers must not confuse symptoms with the problem itself. • E.g. (symptoms) falling market share • Method: • 1. firm’s marketing mix elements and target market • 2. a close look at the promotional strategy • 3. external environment in the form of new competitors entering the market with superior products and lower prices

  19. 6.2.2 Exploratory research • definition: learn about the problem area, focus on specific areas for study in seeking solutions • including: discussing the problem with informed sources (within the firm, wholesalers, retailers, customers, and others outside the firm) • examining secondary sources of information • evaluating the company’s own records (very important---overall view of company efficiency and a clue to the problem under investigation; the basis for analyzing internal data---financial statements) • situation analysis: internal data collection • Informal investigation: exploratory interview with informed persons outside the firm

  20. 6.2.3 Formulating hypotheses • definition: a tentative explanation for some specific event • a statement about the relationship among variables and carries clear implications for testing this relationship • provides a basis for investigation and an eventual determination of its accuracy • allows the move to the development of the research design

  21. 6.2.4 Research design • definition: represents a comprehensive plan for testing the hypothesis formulated about the problem • a series of decisions that, taken together, comprise a master plan or model for the conduct of the investigation

  22. 6.2.5 Information collecting and analyzing • including: collecting, processing, analyzing the information • the most expensive , the most prone to error • carried out by the company’s marketing research staff or by outside firms

  23. 6.2.6 Interpretation and reporting • interpret the findings, draw conclusions, report them to management • discussions between researchers and managers will help point to the best interpretations • research report: understanding, organizing and writing • guidelines:1) think of the audience (too technical and argon words X) • 2) concise yet complete • 3) understand the results and draw conclusions

  24. 美国汽车制造一度在世界上占霸主地位,而日本汽车工业则是20世纪50年代学习美国发展而来的,但是时隔30年,日本汽车制造业突飞猛进,充斥欧美市场及世界各地,为此美国与日本之间出现了汽车磨擦。在60年代,当时有两个因素影响汽车工业:一是第三世界的石油生产被工业发达国家所控制,石油价格低廉;二是轿车制造业发展很快,豪华车、大型车盛行。美国汽车制造一度在世界上占霸主地位,而日本汽车工业则是20世纪50年代学习美国发展而来的,但是时隔30年,日本汽车制造业突飞猛进,充斥欧美市场及世界各地,为此美国与日本之间出现了汽车磨擦。在60年代,当时有两个因素影响汽车工业:一是第三世界的石油生产被工业发达国家所控制,石油价格低廉;二是轿车制造业发展很快,豪华车、大型车盛行。

  25. 但是擅长市场调查和预测的日本汽车制造商,首先通过表面经济繁荣,看到产油国与跨国公司之间暗中正酝酿和发展着的斗争,以及发达国家消耗能量的增加,预见到石油价格会很快上涨。因此,必须改产耗油小的轿车来适应能源短缺的环境。其次,随汽车数增多,马路上车流量增多,停车场的收费会提高,因此,只有造小型车才能适应拥挤的马路和停车场。再次,日本制造商分析了发达国家家庭成员的用车情况。主妇上超级市场,主人上班,孩子上学,一个家庭只有一辆汽车显然不能满足需要。这样,小巧玲珑的轿车得到了消费者的宠爱。于是日本在调研的基础之上作出正确的决策。但是擅长市场调查和预测的日本汽车制造商,首先通过表面经济繁荣,看到产油国与跨国公司之间暗中正酝酿和发展着的斗争,以及发达国家消耗能量的增加,预见到石油价格会很快上涨。因此,必须改产耗油小的轿车来适应能源短缺的环境。其次,随汽车数增多,马路上车流量增多,停车场的收费会提高,因此,只有造小型车才能适应拥挤的马路和停车场。再次,日本制造商分析了发达国家家庭成员的用车情况。主妇上超级市场,主人上班,孩子上学,一个家庭只有一辆汽车显然不能满足需要。这样,小巧玲珑的轿车得到了消费者的宠爱。于是日本在调研的基础之上作出正确的决策。

  26. 在70年代世界石油危机中日本物美价廉的小型节油轿车横扫欧美市场,市场占有率不断提高,而欧美各国生产的传统豪华车因耗油大,成本高,使销路大受影响。在70年代世界石油危机中日本物美价廉的小型节油轿车横扫欧美市场,市场占有率不断提高,而欧美各国生产的传统豪华车因耗油大,成本高,使销路大受影响。

  27. Case Study • Danum Chocolates focused on retailing confectionery. Consider the situation of a company launching a new premium chocolate. It is intended to test the market of the product. If you were the Marketing manager for this test launch what information would you wish to collect?

  28. Number sold and outlets where sold • Awareness of the launch • Where communication seen • Conversion of awareness to trial purchases. • Conversion from trial purchase to adoption by repurchases. • Demographics of above groups

  29. Overall performance of the marketing mix: Product -attitudes to packaging, size and flavour; Price – is product seen as value for money? Place – which type of outlets appears to generate the most sales (e.g. supermarkets or forecourt outlets)? Promotion – which media was seen and what was its impact on awareness and attitudes to the new product? • Overall aim is to establish the likely volume of stable sales after the launch