Unit Six Unit Six
Teaching Objectives 1. Learn about English names. 2. Develop a paragraph of comparison. 3. Enlarge vocabulary. 4. Review reading for the main idea in a paragraph.
Sections Section AAs His Name Is, So Is He! Section B Judge by Appearances Section CThe Pain in Wearing High Heels
Section A As His Name Is, So Is He!
Table of Contents Background Information Warming-up Activities Text Analysis Vocabulary and Structure Vocabulary Test Writing
Background Information（1） Names For this reading passage, we have many proper names, which contain cultural background. The following is a brief explanation of the names that appeared in the reading passage.
Background Information（2） 1) Debbie (f.) represents the personality characteristics of generous, understanding, honest, creative, and intense. It is a short name of Deborah originally from a Hebrew name for a woman described in the Old Testament history of the Bible. 2) Lynne (f.) or Lynn (m.) represents the personality characteristics of sensitive, deeply artistic and creative, intense, and nature-lover and comes from Welsh meaning “lake” or is a short form of Linda (Spanish), or Belinda (Italian), both meaning “beautiful.”
Background Information（3） 3) Webster (m.) represents the personality characteristics of original, inventive, friendly, positive, outspoken, and procrastinator and comes from Old English, meaning “weaver.” 4) Joe (m.) represents the personality characteristics of spontaneous, social, easy-going, warm, generous, lacking in initiative and is a short form of Joseph, originally from a Hebrew name of a famous man in the Old Testament history of the Bible.
Background Information（4） 5) Adrian (m.) represents the personality characteristics of diplomatic, friendly, lacking in energy, confidence and initiative, and a procrastinator. This name is the English form of Hadrian, the name of a Roman Emperor who built a wall across northern Britain. 6) Susan (f.) represents the personality characteristics of pleasant, easy-going, friendly, patient, social, cautious and is a short form of Susanna. It is from the Hebrew Shoshanna name for a woman in the Old Testament history of the Bible.
Background Information（5） 7) Harry (m.) represents the personality characteristics of individual, reserved, serious, stubborn, alone, loyal, and thoughtful. It is the Medieval English form of Henry, the name of eight kings of England. 8) Nigel (m.) represents the personality characteristics of imaginative, creative, inconsistent, insecure, gullible, talkative and is an Italian form of Neil, or a French name meaning “hero”. It is sometimes associated with the Latin niger, meaning “black”.
Background Information（6） 9) Bertha (f.) represents the personality characteristics of idealistic, generous, kind, caring, possessive and comes from German, meaning “bright, famous”. Bertha is well known in German legends as a character who sneaks into nurseries and rocks children to sleep. 10) Pope Mel is a humorous reference, meant to show how foolish it would be to put the two names together. “Pope” is a title given to the highest authority of the Roman Catholic Church in Rome. “Mel” is possibly a short form of either Melvin (m.), or Melanie (f.) or Melissa (f.), and is a playful name which has no meaning in and of itself.
Background Information（7） 11) Julian (m.) represents the personality characteristics of patient, careful, cautious, conservative, intense and comes from Julius, the name of the last Roman emperor. 12) Rory (m.) represents the personality characteristics of practical, logical, analytical, systematic, particular, and serious and comes from the Irish Ruaidhrí, meaning “red king”. It is the name of the last high king of Ireland who reigned in the 12th century.
Background Information（8） 13) Elmer (m.) represents the personality characteristics of shrewd, aggressive, decisive, self-centred, and independent and comes from Old English, meaning “noble, famous”. 14) Hubert (m.) represents the personality characteristics of pleasant, diplomatic, sensitive, passive, and procrastinator and comes from German, meaning “bright heart”. The Saint Hubert who lived in the 8th Century is the patron saint of hunters.
Background Information（9） 15) Michael (m.) represents the personality characteristics of clever, responsible, serious, self-confident and independent and is from the Hebrew name Mikha’el meaning “who is like God”. The New Testament of the Bible identifies Michael as the archangel who leads heaven’s armies. He is the patron saint of soldiers. 16) Linda (f.) represents the personality characteristics of hard worker, careful, patient, independent, reliable, and practical and comes from Spanish or Italian, meaning “beautiful.”
Background Information（10） 17) Diane (f.) represents the personality characteristics of clever, responsible, friendly, serious, reliable, and independent and comes from the French form of Diana, originally from the Roman goddess of nature and fertility. 18) Barbara (f.) represents the personality characteristics of sensitive, artistic, unstable, and self-conscious and comes from the Greek, barbaros, meaning “foreign”. Saint Barbara was a woman killed by her father, who was then killed by a bolt of lightning. She is the patron of architects, geologists, stonemasons and artillerymen.
Background Information（11） 19) Carol (f. or m.) represents the personality characteristics of quiet, practical, clever, methodical, creative, inventive, analytical, studious, and moody and is an English feminine form of Carolus meaning “song” or “hymn” in English. Note that Carol used to be a masculine name as well but now it is for girls only.
Background Information（12） 20) Cindy (f.) represents the personality characteristics of idealistic, proactive, impressionable, receptive, candid, self-centred, sensitive, imaginative, visionary, and perfectionist. Cindy is a short form of Cynthi which comes from the Greek “Kynthos”, the name of the Greek moon goddess Artemis who was named after the mountain Kynthos on which she and her twin brother Apollo were presumably born.
Warming-up Activities（１） Read the following statements. Are they true (T) or false (F) according to the text? The young woman felt happy about substituting Lynne for Debbie. A name change will lead to one's professional achievement. Throughout history, names have been used to identify people alone. T F F
Warming-up Activities（2） F 5. To American men, Mary is the most charming female name. 6. We tend to think ourselves immune to any prejudiced notions about names. T 7. Most teachers treat all students equally, irrespective of their names.F 8. One’s name is supposed to last a life time.F T F F
Warming-up Activities（3） What’s in Your Name? Explain your name to the class and tell them whether you are satisfied with your name or not, and why.
Warming-up Activities（4） Questions & Answers 1. What are some of the ways names can make a difference ? Although names are generally used as signs in social life to distinguish one person from another, they can make a great difference to a person. For example, after using her middle name, a woman felt more confident of herself and consequently made considerable achievement in her career.
Warming-up Activities（5） Questions & Answers Another case in point is best provided by the fact that a magazine refused to print the writer’s name just because it sounded more suitable for a baseball player than an art expert. As similar facts, we may see an uncomfortable woman at a party, who was eager to meet the same man she had refused ablind date because of his name.
Warming-up Activities（6） 2.In what way can teachers be guilty of name prejudice ? Although names can leave us good impression or add some confidence to people’s abilities, more often than not, we tend to hold prejudices to people because of their names. One typical example can be taken from the classroom, where some teachers gave very low grades to the essays written by boys with certain names, but they gave higher
Warming-up Activities（7） grades to the very same essays with only the names changed. Similarly, some girls have become more popular than others simply because their names sound charming and attractive. Therefore we are sometimes easily misguided by names.
Warming-up Activities（8） 3.What does the writer suggest you do if your name does not suit you? As is known to all, names only serve as distinctive signs in social contacts. However, as people become more conscious of the effects names exert upon them, they are paying an increasing attention to the art of choosing names for themselves, their children or even their companies.
Warming-up Activities（9） Anyway, your names should be attractive and charming, and contribute to your achievement. But if you find your name is not suitable for you, the best way out is to change your name, which will perhaps bring you good luck and success.
Warming-up Activities（10） How do names influence us? We all admit that names do influence us in different ways, but any overestimation of their effects on us , as many people put it, is just a fatalism(宿命论). No matter what differences names make to our life and career, their symbolic function can never be changed.
Warming-up Activities（11） As a matter of fact, names themselves by no means lead to success or professional achievements in one’s life. Therefore, if your name fits you, keep it; if you don’t feel like your name, change it for a better one.
Text Analysis (1) The main idea:People’s names are related to their achievement or behavior. Point A:affect classroom achievement Comparison:grades on the same essays written by boys with good names and bad names; Result:lower Point B:other sources of classroom difference Comparison:1) performance of girls with appealing names and less appealing names; 2) popularity of the girls is related to their names; Result: better
Text Analysis (2) An example to introduce the topic Main body Conclusion
Text Analysis (3) Para 1~2 Introduction: Debbie’s trouble about her name and how she gained more confidence and achievement.
Text Analysis (4) Para. 3 The definition and the function of names Para 3~7 Main body: Name can affect one’s life since it’s stereotyped and most people hold such prejudiced notions. Para. 4 Names become attached to specific images. Para. 5 Names with a positive sense work for you Para. 6 We’re guilty of name stereotyping to some extent Para. 7 Such prejudices can affect classroom achievement. However, it isn’t the only source of classroom difference
Text Analysis (5) Para 8 Conclusion: If your name doesn’t fit you, change it.
Vocabulary and Structure Vocabulary and Structure
substitute substitutevt. 代替，取代 n.代替品，代 替物；替身，替换的人扩展：substitution n.；近义词 replace 搭配：substitute A for B 用A代替B a substitute for …的替代品 It is wise of you to substitute well-trained workers for untrained ones in the assembly line. 在流水线上，你用受过训练的工人代替没有经过训练的人是很明智的。 They prefer to substitute experiment and observation for speculative（构思的）theories, but sometimes it is not feasible. 他们喜欢用实验和观察代替纯理论，但有时是不可行的。 例句
talent talent n. 天赋，才能扩展：talented adj.；近义词gift 搭配：have a talent for 有…的天赋 a talented musician 有天赋的音乐家 If you have great talents, industry will improve them; if you have but moderate abilities, industry will supply their deficiency. 如果你很有天赋，勤勉会使天赋更加完善；如果你能力一般，勤勉会补足其缺陷。 After I graduate, I will work somewhere where I can give full play to my talents, and where I am respected and offered favorable conditions to succeed. 毕业后我要到能充分施展才能的地方工作, 在那里我受到尊重, 并且会得到获得成功的最有利的条件。 例句
approval approvaln. 同意，赞同；赞扬，赞许；批准，认可扩展：approve v. ; disapprove v. ; disapproval n. 搭配：give one’s approval for 同意 show approval of/for 表示同意 have one’s approval 得到某人的同意 The other employees contested his right to dismiss Mike without the approval of the manager. 其他职员对他未经经理同意就解雇迈克，提出争议。 His parents gave their approval for his doing part-time jobs, but reminded him not to neglect his studies. 他的父母同意他去做兼职工作，但提醒他不要耽误学习。 例句
reserve reservev. 保留，预定 n. 保留，储备 扩展：reservation n. 保留；限制；预定；预约； reserved adj. 保守的，拘谨的 同根词 serve, deserve, conserve, preserve, observe 搭配：in reserve 备用的 without reserve 无保留地； 无条件地 reserve a table/seat 订座位 We believe your adventurous experience in your voyage on the sea without reserve. 我们绝对相信你在海上航行时的冒险经历。 If you are not on a package tour during the peak tourist time, you must reserve tickets and hotel rooms in advance. 如果在旅游高峰时不参加旅行团，你必须提前预订好票和旅馆房间。 例句
qualify qualifyv. 使胜任，使具有资格，使合格 扩展：qualified adj. ; qualification n. 搭配：qualify as 称职担任某职位 qualify for sth. 称职做某事 To qualify as a romantic poet, you are supposed to develop a capacity for being keenly observant of nature. 要想成为一名浪漫的诗人，你应该培养敏锐地观察大自然的能力。 Four years of education in a normal university qualified him as a teacher/for the job of teaching. 四年师范大学的学习使他具备教师的资格（使他有资格当老师）。 例句
prominent prominent adj.突出的，杰出的；突起的， 凸出的 In school, the children of prominent or successful parent seem to enjoy certain privilege. 在学校里，杰出人物或成功人士的子女似乎享受某种特权。 Tele-Communication plays a prominent part in modern society. 电讯业在现在社会起着非常重要的作用。 例句
refine refinevt.精炼，精制，提纯；使优美，使完善 扩展：refined adj. ; refinement n.; refinery n. 炼油厂，提炼厂; 同根词define, confine Older cars inevitably lack the latest safety features and need refining. 旧式汽车/老款汽车无疑缺乏最新的安全性能，需要完善。 Oil is refined to remove naturally occurring impurities. 石油经过精炼去除了因自然原因而产生的杂质。 例句
extent extent n. 宽度，广度，长度；程度，限度；范围 搭配：to a certain /some/ a great extent 在一定/某种/很大程度上 to the / such an extent that …竟然到…的地步; 如此…以至于 The notion that money is the root of all evil is convincing to some extent. 认为钱是万恶根源的观念在一定程度上是有说服力的。 例句
extent 例句 What impressed me was that my roommates were all supporting me to their full extent whenever I ran into trouble. 给我留下深刻印象的是, 无论什么时候我遇到麻烦，室友们都全力以赴地支持我。 He grew hopelessly addicted to chatting online，to such an extent that he almost neglected anything else. 他无可救药地沉迷于在网上聊天，以至于几乎忘了其它所有的事情。
award awardvt. 授予，给予，颁发 ；裁定（通常指官方或 法院根据有关规定把钱财等奖给或判给某人） n. 奖，奖金，奖学金扩展：同根词reward, ward； 近义词reward 搭配：award sth. to sb. (for sth.) 或award sb. sth. (for sth.) 因某事奖赏某人某物 He received honors and awards from the government because of his great contribution to agricultural production. 由于他对农业生产的巨大贡献，他得到了政府授予的荣誉和奖励。 $50,000 was the amount the court awarded to him as the victim of the traffic accident. 5万美元是法庭判给他这个交通事故受害者的赔偿数额. 例句
objective objective adj. 客观的，不带偏见的 n. 目标，目的扩展：object n./v.; 反义词subjective adj. 主观的 If they meet these objectives, they should be rewarded with honors and awards. 如果他们达到目标，就应该授予他们荣誉和奖金。 Never let a little problem deflect you and never pay too much attention to details only to lose your major objectives. 不要因一个小问题而转移你的注意力，不要太注意细节而忽略你的主要（大）目标。 例句
objective 例句 Whether an idea conforms with the objective or not ought to be tested in practice. 一个观点是否符合客观实际应该在实践中检验。 It’s wrong for a person to ascribe his failures all to objective conditions. 一个人把自己的失败完全归因于客观条件是错误的。
elegant elegant a. tasteful in appearance or manner 优雅的，文雅的，精致的 The lady is elegant in her manners and her speech. 那位女士举止言谈优雅得体。 The young man is elegant and handsome. 这位年轻人举止优雅风度翩翩。 例句
application applicationn. 1) official request 申请，请求 2) act of putting a theory, discovery, etc. to practical use 应用，运用 Free information will be sent out an application to the office. 可向公司函索免费资料。 Students learned the practical application of the theory. 学生们学着把理论知识应用到实际中去。 例句
latter lattera./n. 1. being the second of two people, things or groups mentioned befor 2. near to the end of a period Building of the new library should begin in the latter part of next year. 新图书馆应在明年下半年开始修建。 Jack and Bill are twins, but the latter is taller than the former. 杰克和比尔是孪生兄弟，不过后者比前者个子高。 例句
acquaintance acquaintancen. 1. person whom one knows but who is not a close friend 2. (often slight) knowledge of sb./sth. He has a wide circle of acquaintances. 他交际甚广。He has some little acquaintance with the Japanese language. 他略懂一些日语。 例句