Unit Six Risks
Preparation • 1.Risks in jobs • 2:Which activity is riskier? • 3:Why would people like to take risks?
Risks • Risk is the probability of losing something of value. Since we value life above other things, the greatest risk for most people is the risk of death. Other things we value include health, safety, money, property, relationships and happiness.
1. Risks in Jobs Directions: Work in pairs to classify the following list of jobs according to the risks involved in the job. Some jobs have different types of risks. • coal-miner stockbroker policeman • president fireman singer • lawyer teacher businessman • pilot model writer • farmer factory worker psychiatrist • chemical engineer computer programmer
2. Which activity is riskier? • Directions: Work in groups to list the following activities in order of riskiness. rock climbing working on a farm driving a car skydiving skiing flying in an airplane driving a motorcycle being a 65-year-old man
2. Which activity is riskier? • The following is a list of the activities from the riskiest to the safest. rock climbing →skydiving→ driving a motorcycle →being a 65-year-old man →skiing → flying in an airplane → driving a car → working on a farm
3. Why Would People Like to Take Risks? • Directions: Read the following quotes on risk and work in pairs to discuss why people would like to take risks.
3. Why Would People Like to Take Risks? • Most people can do extraordinary things if they have the confidence or take the risks. Yet most people don’t. They sit in front of the telly and treat life as if it goes on forever. • — Philip Andrew Adams • However well organized the foundations of life may be, life must always be full of risks. • — Henry Havelock Ellis • He who is not courageous enough to take risks will accomplish nothing in life. • — Muhammad Ali
3. Why Would People Like to Take Risks? • Sample: I’m really impressed by these quotes. They tell us that life is full of risks. As Ali put it, he who is not courageous enough to take risks will accomplish nothing in life. So taking risks is an essential part of growth and progress. If we look at some famous people we know, obviously they are all good risk takers. In addition to making achievements, some people take risks to enjoy a new experience and to challenge themselves. They want to look like a courageous guy or a strong person. Taking risks will make them feel more confident and competent. They also want to enjoy the excitement in risk taking because their lives are otherwise too peaceful and comfortable.
Reading-Centered Activities 1. Reading Questions 2. Text Structure 3. Sentence Study 4. Useful Expressions
1.What is risk? Could you think of as many risks as you can in our life? Risk is the probability that something bad will happen. Our life is full of risks. For instance, people involved in traffic accidents may get hurt or injured. A passenger may be killed in an air crash, or even a child will be faced with sharp toys and poor childcare. There may be natural disasters such as hurricane, tsunami, infectious diseases or dangerous flood.
2.What should we do in face of risks? In face of risks, we should keep calm and try to get help. In addition, we can try our best to reduce the chances of risks. For example, we shall reduce the speed to avoid the accident when we drive a car or ride a bike; we shall keep away from the dangerous places or games unless there are sufficient protections.
3. What’s the difference and similarity between hypochondria and anxiety about risks? Both are the result of partial information. But the big difference is that the hypochondriac can usually turn to a physician to clarify the whole situation. Then he knows clearly whether he has the suspected disease or not. As to the risks of life, the situation is not that simple, for risks are almost always a matter of probability rather than certainty.
I. Risks are always a matter of probability rather than certainty. (Para. 1-3) Comparison between hypochondria and anxiety about the risks of life:
2. We can inform ourselves about the relevant risks before any decision-making by measuring the level of a risk.(Para. 4-7) We should inform ourselves about the relevant risks before making any decision. (Para. 4) We need to know the relative safety of large cars and small cars before our purchase. (Para. 5) Risk level can be expressed in ratios or fractions.(Para.6-7)
3. Conclusion(para.8) Common sense and relevant information are keys to managing risks in a sensible way.
I.At some time or other, all of us have played the part of a hypochondriac, imagining that we have some terrible disease on the strength of very minor, symptoms. (Line 2) 句型应用: On the strength of ( relying on, with the support or help of) 基于……, 由于……的影响
Examples: 1）I bought the book on the strength of your recommendation. 我买了你推荐的那本书。 2) I invested in this company on the strength of my brother’s advice. 在我哥哥的建议下，我对这家公司进行投资。
I. At some time or other, all of us have played the part of a hypochondriac, imagining that we have some terrible disease on the strength of very minor, symptoms. (Line 2) • 译文： • 在说不定的某个时候，我们大家都曾充当过疑病症患者的角色，只凭一些轻微的症状便怀疑自己得了某种可怕的病。
II.Anxiety about the risks of life is a bit like hypochondria; in both, the fear or anxiety feeds on partial information. (Line 12) • 句型应用： feed on (use something in order to continue to exist or become stronger) 由……助长
Examples: 1) Their hatred feeds on envy and narrow-mindedness. 他们的仇恨皆因嫉妒和心胸狭小而起。 2）She seemed to feed on his despair. 她似乎从他的绝望中得到了满足。
II. Anxiety about the risks of life is a bit like hypochondria; in both, the fear or anxiety feeds on partial information. (Line 12) • 译文： 对生活中风险的担忧与疑病症有相似之处；二者的恐惧或忧虑皆起因于信息不全面。
III. It is much more difficult when anxiety about other forms of risk is concerned, because with many risks, the situation is not as simple.(Line 15) • 句型应用： • when…sth. is concerned: 就……来说，就……而言； 有时常用 as far as sth. is concerned表示
Examples: 1）When he is concerned, whatever decision you will make is acceptable. • 就他而言，你做出的任何决定都可以接受。 2）As far as my hometown is concerned, the agriculture is still the major source of incomes. • 就我的家乡而言，农业仍然是主要的收入来源。
III. It is much more difficultwhenanxiety about other forms of riskis concerned, because with many risks, the situation is not as simple.(Line 15) • 译文： • 但当涉及到其他形式的风险时，事情就要困难得多，因为对于很多风险来说，情况并不那么简单。
IV. But what if you get hit from the side and end up trapped inside the vehicle, unable to escape because of a damaged seat belt mechanism? ( Line20) 句型应用: • what if…？相当于what would happen if… 意为：“如果……那又怎么办呢？”
Examples: 1）What if the chairman fails to show up at the exhibition? • 如果主席不能出现展会，那该怎么办呢？ 2）What if their flight is overdue owing to the heavy fog? • 要是他们的航班因为大雾而晚点怎么办呢？
end up,最后成为（处于），后面可接名词（短语）、形容词、现在分词、过去分词或介词短语作状语。 Examples: 1） The college graduate ended up (as) the president of the investment company. 那位大学毕业生最后当上了一家投资公司的总裁。 2）If the hooligans continue their wrongdoings, they will end up in prison sooner or later. 如果那些小流氓继续胡作非为，那么他们迟早会进监狱的。
IV. But what if you get hit from the side and end up trapped inside the vehicle, unable to escape because of a damaged seat belt mechanism? ( Line20) • 译文： • 倘若你的车侧面被撞，因安全带装置遭破坏而被困车里，无法挣脱，那该怎么办呢？
V. Again, in head-on collisions, it may well save your life. (Line 26) • 句型应用： • may well (be very likely to) 很可能
Examples: 1) Your job may well involve some traveling. 要是你做这份工作，有时很可能要出差。 2）She may well refuse to speak to you, because she’s in a bad mood. 她很可能不会跟你说话，因为她现在心情 不好。
V. Again, in head-on collisions, it may well save your life. (Line 26) • 译文： 同样，在正面相撞的情况下，保险气袋完全可以救你一命。
VI. But the fact that there are risks associated with everything we are going to do does not, or should not, reduce us to trembling neurotics. (Line 33) 句型应用： reduce …… to (bring somebody or something to a lower or weaker state, condition or role) 使某人陷入某种（通常指更坏）的状态或状况
Examples: 1) Laziness has reduced him to a homeless beggar. 懒惰使他沦为一个无家可归的乞丐。 2）The financial crisis reduced many small and medium-sized enterprises to bankruptcy. 金融危机使很多中小型企业破产倒闭。
VI. But the fact that there are risks associated with everything we are going to do does not, or should not, reduce us to trembling neurotics. (Line 33) 译文： 但我们又不能，也不该因危险存在于我们将要做的每件事，而变成战战兢兢的神经患者。
VII: In the case just discussed, we would find the relative safety of car travel and coal mining by dividing the numbers of lives lost in each by the number of people participating in each. (Line57) • 句子分析： • 这是一个简单句，主干结构为we would find the relative safety，of引起的介词短语作定语修饰前面的名词relative safety，by dividing…in each是句子的方式状语，句首的In the case just discussed为状语，意思是 “在刚刚讨论的情况中”。结尾中出现了两个each都指的是each activity，“每一项活动”。
Oncewe understandthatrisk can never be totally eliminated from any situation andthat, therefore, nothing is completely safe,we will then seethat the issueis notone of avoiding risks altogetherbut ratherone of managing risks in a sensible way.(Line 68) • 句子分析： 本句是一个主从复合句，从句Oncewe understand…safe中，谓语 understand后有两个由that引导的并列宾语从句，主句we will then see…way中,动词see也带了一个由that引导的宾语从句，从句的主要结构为the issue is not…but rather…。
I. indefinitely(adv.)(Line 10, Para. 1) • for a period of time without a fixed limit无限期地 1. The peace talk shall not be postponed indefinitely. 和谈不应无限期地推迟。 2. The treasure will be indefinitely kept by the national museum. 那件珍宝将由国家博物馆永远保存。
definite–indefinite–indefinitely • definite • adj. clearly known, seen, or stated; without any uncertainty • 明确的, 一定的 1. The representatives have reached an agreement on the definite date of next meeting. 代表们就下次会议召开的具体日期达成了一致。 2. The workers on strike demanded a definite answer from the factory owners. 参加罢工的工人们要求工厂主给予明确的答复。
II. partial(Line 12, Para. 2) adj. 1) not complete 部分的，不完全的 1. A partial understanding of this issue will misguide you into a wrong conclusion. 如果对这个问题缺乏全面的认识，那么你就会得出错误的结论。 2. Her partial recovery didn’t prevented her from continuing the experiment. 尽管她并没有痊愈，但她还是继续自己的实验。
2) partial to • infml having a strong liking for • ( 非正式) 过分喜欢，偏爱 1. My son is very partial to hamburgers and French fries. 我的儿子很喜欢吃汉堡包和薯条。 2. The old people are usually partial to some classic songs. 老年人往往都喜欢听一些经典老歌。
adj. 3) unfairly supporting one person or one group against another • 偏向一方的，偏袒的，不公正的 1. The teachers shall not be partial to any students. 老师不应该偏袒任何学生。 2. Their partial attitude towards racial issue has stimulated the national rage. 他们在种族问题上的不公正态度激怒了全国人民。
III.accidentally(Line 26, Para.3) • adv. happening by chance, not by plan or intention 偶然地，意外地 1. The explorers discovered the ancient tomb accidentally. 探险家们意外地发现了那座古墓。 2. They came across their old schoolmates accidentally on the way to the hotel. 在去酒店的路上，他们意外地遇到了自己的老校友。
IV. inflate(Line 27, Para. 3) • v. 1) to fill with air or gas to make bigger • （使）充满气体，（使）膨胀 1. Don’t inflate the balloon too fast; otherwise, it will burst. 给气球充气时不要过快，不然，气球会爆的。 2. It takes special skills to inflate the life jacket. 给救生衣充气需要特殊的技巧。
2) to raise (a price) by inflation 使……通货膨胀 Some irresponsible governments paid a heavy price for inflating their paper currencies. 一些不负责任的政府滥发纸币，为此付出了沉重的代价。