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Unit Six

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Unit Six

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  1. Unit Six Animal Intelligence

  2. Text A What animals really think Food, warmth, sleep? Their thoughts may be much deeper than that.

  3. Pre-reading task • pig, hen, dog, dolphin, gorilla, whale, elephant, monkey, rat, parrot, cat, ant • Rank these animals according to their intelligence, and get ready to explain the rationale behind the ranking. You may cite examples, anecdotes, personal experiences, scientific findings, etc.

  4. Conclusion Animals do display intelligence in some areas. • Let’s read the text and find out more examples of animal intelligence.

  5. Text Organization • The text is a piece of expository writing. The purpose of expository is to explain. Here, what does the author, Eugene Linden, want to express?

  6. The author wants to tell the reader that animals do have, at least, some limited intelligence, and the personal experiences of those who are in close contact with animals are more convincing than that any experiments.

  7. The whole passage can be divided into three parts • Part I ( para.1-2, an introduction) • Part II ( para.3-12, supporting facts grouped under three subheadings) • Part III ( para.13, the conclusion)

  8. Part I (para.1-2, an introduction) • Some animals demonstrate intelligence when dealing with captivity and human beings.

  9. Part II(para.3-12, supporting facts grouped under three subheadings) • Subheadings Main Ideas • Let’s make a deal • Some animals are so intelligent that they know how to bargain with people. • Tale of a Whale • Animals like whales can judge a situation and act accordingly. • Primate Shell Game • Animals sometimes can play tricks Main Ideas

  10. Part III (para.13, the conclusion) • Some animals are intelligent.

  11. Part I (para.1-2, an introduction) • Some animals demonstrate intelligence when dealing with captivity and human beings.

  12. 1. Controversy(L.2) n. public discussion or argument, often rather angry, about sth which many people disagree with 争议 E.g. The lie detector tests have been the subject of much ~. 测谎试验一直是一个颇有争议的题目. controversial adj. E.g. a highly ~ subject(figure,speech)

  13. 2. Do animals really have thoughts, what we call consciousness?(L.2) Do animals really have the thoughts that we call consciousness? 在本句中what 等于the thing that,引导从句,起补充说明的作用。 • 3. Explore(L.4):vt. examine thoroughly, learn about E.g. They had explored all the possibilities. 他们研究了所有的可能性

  14. 4. to serve one’s purpose:(L.6) 某物为某人自身的目的、利益 e.g. When one thing serves their own purpose, people will try their best to do it. 当一件事是为人们的自身利益时,他们就会尽最大的努力。

  15. 5. Encounter vt.(L.9) fml. meet unexpectedly 偶遇,碰到 Did you encounter anyone in the library? 你在图书馆遇到谁了吗?

  16. 6. reveal vt.(L.10)) make known泄露,透露 用法:reveal + n., reveal + that从句 e.g. He refused to reveal the secret. 他拒绝透露秘密。 A survey of the Chinese diet has revealed that a growing number of children in cities are overweight.

  17. 7. convince vt.(L.10) make sb to feel certain, cause sb to realize sth 使确信,使信服 用法:convince sb of sth或 convince sb + that We finally convinced John of our innocence. 我们终于使约翰相信了我们的清白。 I tried to convince the students that they cannot afford wasting time. 我努力使学生们信服他们浪费不起时间。 I tried to convince the students that English is learned not taught.

  18. Exercise(para.1-2) • 1. Our personal space ______ about 12 to 18 inches around us. a.intend b. extend c. expend d. expand 解析: intend 打算,expend 花费,expand扩张,extend在本题中是延伸的意思。 译文: 我们的个人空间延伸到我们周围大约十二或十八英寸的范围。

  19. 2. An ____adj.______ computer is able to adjust to changes in the situations it is programmed to deal with. (intelligent) • 3. In spite of the financial problems _____participle____ them, they still went ahead with the experiment. (surrounding)

  20. 4. There used to be a long-running controversy_prep.____ whether the book should be published or not. (over, about) • 5. Charlie Chaplin was a _adj._ figure in the American film industry. (dominant)

  21. Part II(para.3-12) • Let’s make a deal • Some animals are so intelligent that they know how to bargain with people.

  22. Gorilla : • the largest of the great apes. The male is heavily built and may stand 1.7 m (5.5 feet) in height, with an arm-spread of 2.4 m (7..8 feet). It has a large head with a short neck, prominent mouth, thin lips, and small ears. The female is smaller than the male. This huge animal has formidable canine teeth, yet it feeds on fruit and vegetables and has no natural enemies. Most of the day is spent on the ground; they usually walk on all fours leaning on the knuckles of their hands, but occasionally upright.

  23. 1. make a deal: reach an agreement to the advantage of both sides, often in business(经常在商业中)达成协议,也可写做do a deal Japan has to make a deal with America on rice imports. 日本不得不与美国在大米进口上达成协议。 The workers have done a deal with the management on overtime. 工人已与管理方就加班达成了协议。 • 2.  Consider the time Charlene Jendry, … • Please think about that time when Charlene Jendry, …

  24. 3. handle vt. (L.15) 1) deal with successfully 处理, 应付 • To succeed, you must know how to handle pressure. • 要成功你必须学会应对压力。 2) hold and move with hands 拿,执 • Handle with care, please. 请轻拿轻放。 • n. 把手,柄

  25. 4. Arriving on the scene, Jendry offered Colo some peanuts, only to be met with a blank stare.(L.16) When she got to the place where Colo was, Jendry gave Colo some peanuts, but her good will was not well accepted and she got a blank stare from Colo. • Only to (see structure 1, p.181)

  26.  5. negotiate v.(L.17) discuss in order to come to an agreement 谈判 搭配: negotiate with sb negotiate to do sth negotiate for sth The president did not want to negotiate with the workers. 董事长不想同工人谈判。 They were negotiating to enter Asian market. 他们在磋商谈判进入亚洲市场。 She is negotiating for a pay raise. 她在为涨一次工资谈判。

  27. 6.  relieve vt.(L.20) free sb from pain, anxiety, etc; ease (pain, anxiety, etc.)解除(痛苦,焦虑),减轻(痛苦,焦虑)。 搭配: relieve sb of sth E.g. Taking a part-time job would relieve you of the financial burden. 派生词: relieved adj.释然的,放松的, relief n. 减轻,缓解,救济。

  28. 7. Why give her the whole thing if I can get a bit of pineapple for each piece?(L.22) Why should I give her the whole thing if I can get a bit of pineapple for each piece? 该句为省略句,较口语化。 See structure 2, p.182 Why+do sth Why not do sth

  29. 8.  trade v.(L.24) buy, sell, or exchange买卖,交换货物 搭配: trade sth for sth They traded land for goods and money. 他们用土地交换货物和钱。 They refused to trade when offered attractive prices. 当被给出诱人价格时他们拒绝交易。

  30. 9.undertake (l.26)vt. fml. carry out;take upon oneself (a task,etc.)从事,承担(任务等) E.g. The Three Gorges Project is the one of the biggest engineering projects ever undertaken. 三峡工程是人们迄今所承建的最大的工程之一.

  31. 10. Figure out v. work out, understand 解决,理解 He cannot figure me out. I am a mystery to him. 他看不透我。我对他来说是个谜。 We have to figure out how to get there. 我们必须想出如何到达那里。

  32. 11.   switch .v. change or shift 转换,转变 搭配: switch to sth 转换到另一事物。 Let’s switch the conversation to another topic. 让我们把谈话转换话题。 He used to play tennis, but now he’s switched to golf.

  33. 12.   envy 1) v. wish that you had a quality or possession that another person has, 羡慕,嫉妒 搭配: envy sb/ sth envy sb sth envy sb for sth Everyone envies his good luck. 每个人都羡慕他的好运气。 No one will envy you for your high salary for you deserve it. 没人会嫉妒你的高薪水因为是你该得到的。

  34. Tale of a Whale Animals like whales can judge a situation and act accordingly.

  35. 1. cooperate vi.(L.40) to work or act together for a shared purpose 合作 (followed by with, or in, or to do sth.) The New York City police cooperated with the force in Boston in catching the criminals. Russia and the US are cooperating in joint space ventures. Aid agencies and the local government are cooperating to deliver supplies to the flooded area.

  36. 2. in one’s interest:(L.41) for or to one’s advantage 为了某人的利益 It would be in your interest to accept the contract. 接受合同会对你有利。 Raising the food price is not in public interest. 提高是外食物价格对公众不利。

  37. 3.assess vt.(L.45) consider sth in order to make a judgment about it, evaluate, estimate 评估,估价 They are assessing the effect of this policy. 他们在评估这一政策的效果。 This house is assessed at 300,000 Yuan. 这房子估价三十万元。 The value of the diamond was assessed at $ 20,000. Examinations are not the only means of assessing someone’s ability. 派生词; assessment n.评估,估价, assessor n. 评估员, asset n. 资产,财产

  38.  4.  size up:( L.54) ( informal) carefully examine a situation or person in order to make a judgment 判断,估计 He sized me up when my father introduced me. 我父亲介绍我时,他打量着我。 We need to size up the possibilities for action. 我们需要估计一下行动的可能性。

  39. 5. Release:vt.(L.57) to set free (used in the pattern: release sb./sth from) 释放 E.g. The hijackers released three of the hostages. 劫机者释放了其中三名人质. 新的贸易数字刚刚公布. The new trade figures have just been released.

  40. Primate Shell Game Animals sometimes can play tricks

  41. 1.  orangutan : a species of large ape related to chimpanzees, gorillas, and man. It is the largest fruit-eater in the world and is known to eat at least 200 species of fruit. 猩猩,与大猩猩,黑猩猩及人类有亲缘关系的一种大型猿类。它是世界上最大的以水果为生的动物,大约吃200多种水果

  42. deceive vt.(L.61) to cause someone to accept as true or good what is false or bad欺骗,欺诈 deceive sb. deceive sb. into doing sth. You can’t pass exams without working, so don’t deceive yourself into thinking you can. You deceived me, and I can’t forgive you. They deceive the old man into signing the papers.