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Unit Six PowerPoint Presentation

Unit Six

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Unit Six

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  1. Unit Six A.D. 1046 - 1305

  2. Unit Six: Lesson One Objective: To explore the cause of the Schism of 1054 and the Gregorian Reform

  3. Schism of 1054 • Schism = Break • In the beginning of the 11th century the Church in the Western part of Europe and the Church in the Eastern part of Europe began to argue • The Authority of the Pope • Celibacy of priests

  4. Schism of 1054 • In 1054 these disagreements caused a split in the Church that remains today. • The Western Church is known as the Roman Catholic Church • The Eastern Church is known as the Eastern Orthodox Church • Both Churches share the same basic creed, moral code, liturgical tradition, and sacramental practices.

  5. A Need for Reform • In 1046 German emperor Henry III was visiting Rome and became very angry. • Three bishops claimed to be Pope at the same time • Each one was backed by a different family of Roman nobles who wanted the power and wealth that came with begin Pope. • Henry III dismissed all three bishops and appointed a German born Pope. 8th Grade Religion

  6. A Need for Reform • German Pope Leo IX (1048 - 1054) began a reform movement that had a lasting affect on the Church. • Reform movement reached a climax under Pope Gregory VII (1073-1085) • We call this reform the Gregorian Reform. • The Gregorian Reform was supported by thousands of clergy and laity 8th Grade Religion

  7. Pope Gregory VII 8th Grade Religion

  8. A Need for Reform • First problem that needed to be solved was the practice of laypeople appointing priests, bishops and Popes. • Reformers called this practice lay investiture. • Gregorian Reform lasted almost 70 years. • In 1122 Pope Callistus II and Emperor Henry VI signed the Concordat of Worms • This treaty guaranteed the right of the Church to choose its own leaders 8th Grade Religion

  9. A Need for Reform • Under Gregorian Reform priests were no longer allow to marry. • Those priests who were already married had to leave their wives. 8th Grade Religion

  10. Thomas Beckett • Gregorian Reform caused conflict between the clergy and secular Kings of Europe. • An example of this conflict is seen in England in 1170. • King Henry II appointed his friend Thomas Beckett Archbishop of Canterbury. • Thomas became a great champion of the poor and upset Henry with his sermons • Four knights murdered Beckett on the alter of his church on January 29th 1170. 8th Grade Religion

  11. Unit Six: Lesson 2 Objective: To explore how the Crusades failed to achieve their objectives. 8th Grade Religion

  12. Christianity: The Second One Thousand Years DVD 2Crusades The Fall of Constantinople 8th Grade Religion

  13. Innocent III • After the Gregorian Reform the Church and Pope became highly respected • People looked to the Pope for moral and spiritual guidance • Canon Law is the name we give to the laws of the Church 8th Grade Religion

  14. The Crusades • Pope Innocent III had a dream of recapturing the Holy Land from the Muslims. • From 1094 to 1204 the Crusades, Holy Wars to win the Holy Land were undertaken. 8th Grade Religion

  15. The Crusades 8th Grade Religion

  16. The Crusades • First Crusade began in 1095 when Pope Urban II issued a public appeal to the nobles and Knights of Europe to liberate the Holy Land. • The crusade was a disaster from the beginning when untrained soldiers massacred Jews. • They did capture Jerusalem from the Muslims in 1099. • 50 years later the Muslims recaptured Jerusalem 8th Grade Religion

  17. The Crusades • This sparked the Second and Third Crusades to try to win back Jerusalem. The crusades were a failure. • In 1204 the Fourth Crusade was organized by Pope Innocent III. • This Crusade was a disgrace. Instead of attacking Muslims in Jerusalem the crusaders turned against Christians in Constantinople. • Today we realize that the Crusades were an embarrassment to the Catholic Church because we know the gospel should never be spread through violence. 8th Grade Religion

  18. Hagia Sofia 8th Grade Religion

  19. Unit Six: Lesson 3 Objective: To explore how the friars improved the Church. 8th Grade Religion

  20. Christianity: The Second One Thousand Years DVD 2St. Dominic Birth of Spain 8th Grade Religion

  21. The Culture of Christendom • Christianity is the religion of the followers of Jesus Christ • Christendom refers to the cultural world that came into existence during the High Middle Ages in Europe. • This was a period where nearly everyone was Catholic and Catholicism influenced every aspect of life. 8th Grade Religion

  22. Threats from Within • Church fought against anyone who taught false truths. They were called hereticsand their teachings were known as heresy. • Sometimes even those who criticized the Church in a faithful way were called heretics. • Fear of heresy led to what has been called the Inquisition. 8th Grade Religion

  23. Threats from Within • The Inquisition began in 1231 and was a official Catholic court that was charged with investigating and punishing heretics. • Sometimes the punishment was prison, fines, torture and even death. • Its hard to imagine that the Catholic Church in the name of the gospels burned people alive. 8th Grade Religion

  24. The Coming of the Friars • There were people who wanted to return the Church to the true gospel message • At this time many people were moving from the country into cities. This led to the creation of the Urban Poor. • No help for this group of people existed. To fill this need a new kind of religious order was created called the friars. • Two of the first friars were St. Francis of Assisi and Saint Dominic. 8th Grade Religion

  25. The Coming of the Friars • St. Francis of Assisi (1181-1226) began the Franciscans • St. Dominic (1170-1221) began the Dominicans • St. Claire (1194-1253) 8th Grade Religion

  26. In Class Assignment Visit Assumption Church to view the various types of Stained Glass windows. 8th Grade Religion

  27. Unit Six: Lesson 4 Objective: To appreciate the various expressions of faith in the High Middle Ages. 8th Grade Religion

  28. Expressions of Faith • Soon other orders of friars began like the Carmelites and the Augustinians. • These orders were known as mendicant or begging orders because they helped the needy through donations • The friars affected the lives of Catholics by bringing the Church closer to the people. They introduced the Rosary, Stations of the Cross and the Christmas Creche. 8th Grade Religion

  29. Gothic Architecture • The most lasting physical monuments to Christendom are the cathedrals and churches built in the Gothic style • Gothic architecture became popular in 1150. • Churches were very plain but Gothic churches soared up toward heaven with beautiful stained glass windows. • Called “the Bible of the Poor.” 8th Grade Religion

  30. Example of an Early Church 8th Grade Religion

  31. Example of a Gothic Church 8th Grade Religion

  32. Rose Window 8th Grade Religion

  33. Rose Window 8th Grade Religion

  34. Education and Learning • By the 12th century universities were being created and run by the monks and friars. • Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) is the best know of the medieval scholars. • A Dominican friar who studied all faith and religions • “truth cannot contradict truth” 8th Grade Religion