Unit six Knowledge and Wisdom
content • Text one • Text two • Oral activity • Exercises
Text one • Pre-reading questions • Background information • Vocabulary • Structure analysis • Comprehension questions • Language points of Text I
Text I Knowledge and Wisdom • Pre-reading questions 1. What kind of people is considered wise? Cite some examples. 2. And what are the elements that constitute wisdom? 3. How can you become wise? Do you think what you are doing in college contributes to wisdom?
Background information (1) • About the text and the author • Bertrand Russell (1872—1970), British philosopher and mathematician, was one of the outstanding figures of 20th century British philosophy, and was especially important for his work in mathematical logic and notable for his support humanitarian causes. His major works include Principia Mathematica, 3 vols. (1910—1913), written with A.N. Whitehead, and A History of Western Philosophy (1945).
Background information (2) • Russell was twice imprisoned for activities associated with advocacy of pacifism(1918), and with the anti-nuclear movement (1961). • He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1950.
Background information (3) • Proverbs on Wisdom • 1. To know wisdom and instruction; to perceive the words of understanding. • 要使人晓得智慧和训诲, 分辨通达的言语。 • 2. Wisdom is not like money to be tied up and hidden. (Akan Proverb) • 智能不像金钱，不能捆起来藏着。
Background information (4) • 3. Wisdom is more to be envied than riches. • 知识可羡，胜于财富。 • 4. Wisdom comes form extensive observation and broad knowledge. • 聪明来自于见多识广. • 5. Wisdom in the mind is better than money in the hand. 胸中有知识，胜于手中有钱。
Background information (5) • 6.Doubt is the key of knowledge. 怀疑是知识之钥。 • 7. If you want knowledge,you must toil for it. 若要求知识，须从勤苦得。 • 8.A little knowledge is a dangerous thing. 浅学误人。 • 9. Learn wisdom by the follies of others. 从旁人的愚行中学到聪明。 • 10. Wisdom is to the mind what health is to the body. 知识之于精神，一如健康之于肉体。
Structure analysis of the text (1) • The text is neatly structured, with the first paragraph introducing the topic and the other paragraphs elaborating on it. Each of the four paragraphs discusses one factor that contributes to wisdom.
Structure analysis of the text (2) • Paragraph 2: Of these I should put first a sense of proportion: the capacity to take account of all the important factors in a problem and to attach to each its due weight. • Paragraph 3: There must be, also, a certain awareness of the ends of human life. • Paragraph 4: It is needed in the choice of ends to be pursued and in emancipation from personal prejudice. • Paragraph 5: I think the essence of wisdom is emancipation, as far as possible, from the tyranny of the here and now.
Structure analysis of the text (3) • Factors that constitute wisdom: • 1.comprehensiveness mixed with a sense of proportion; • 2.a full awareness of the goals of human life; • 3.understanding; • 4.impartiality
Comprehension questions (1) • 1. What message does the writer try to convey with the example of technicians? • Key: Refer to Paragraph 2. The writer tries to tell us knowledge itself cannot save the world. Knowledge without wisdom will not benefit the world an din some cases will even pose a serious threat to humanity. So a wise person has to have a comprehensive view.
Comprehension questions (2) • 2. How can wisdom help one in his/her pursuit of a life-long career? • Key: Refer to Paragraph 4. Wisdom can help one in his choice of a life-long pursuit. When one has to make a major career decision, he has to consider whether it is possible to achieve what he aims at. If it is too high to be achieved, he should learn to give it up and turn to an attainable goal.
Comprehension questions (3) • 3.What, according to Russell, is the essence of wisdom? And how can one acquire the very essence? • Key: Refer to Paragraph 5. According to Russell, the essence of wisdom lies in impartiality, the ability to defy the physical world. Russell believes the process of growing wise is that of tearing oneself away from the physical and emotional worlds and moving into a higher stage, the spiritual world.
Vocabulary(1) • 1. correlative: adj. having or showing a relation to something else. • E.g. Democracy is correlative with centralism.民主是对集中而言的。 • vt/i correlate: • E.g. We should correlate the theory with practice. • [C] correlation • E.g.The article explains the correlation between climate and vegetation
Vocabulary(2) • 2. cease: vt/i: to come to an end • e.g. He never ceased from his activities as a propagandist. • cease fire • Gradually their talk ceased. • 他们终于由于缺乏资金而停工了。 • At last they ceased working for lack of capital. • [U] pause • E.g. We worked without cease to get the production finished on time.
Vocabulary(3) • 3. promote: vt.1) To help the process of something; to encourage or support. • E.g. The teacher’s encouragement promotes the students’ love of learning. • 2)Do you have any idea how to promote the sales of this product? • To attempt to sell or popularize by advertising or publicity • 3) Our teacher has been promoted to headmaster. • To raise to a more important or responsible job or rank. • [U] promotion adj. promotive
Vocabulary(4) • 4. contribute to: to help to cause or bring about • e.g. Poor food contributed to her illness. • Her singing will contribute greatly to the success of the party. • 5. proportion: the correct relation in size, degree, etc. between one thing and another or between the parts of a whole. • E.g. This door is narrow in proportion to its height. • A large proportion of the students were sick last week. in proportion to • We do not always find visible happiness in proportion to visible virtue(Samuel Johnson)
Vocabulary(5) • 6. due: proper, adequate • e.g. They will surely meet with due punishment. • Due care must be taken while one is driving. • 我们有充分的理由给予他们荣誉 • We have due cause to honor them. • 7. populous:densely populated • E.g. America now becomes the third biggest populous country. • -ous: characterize by; of the nature other examples: mountainous, poisonous
Vocabulary(6) • 8. spectacular: adj.strikingly large and obvious • E.g. This is a spectacular achievement in science • [C] Something that is spectacular • E.g. The Great Wall is a spectacular in the world. • [U] spectacularity. • -ar: of the kind specified • other example: molecular, scholar • 9. atom: the smallest part of an element that can exist chemically. • substance—molecule—atom—proton/electron
Vocabulary(7) • 10. lunatic: 1) [C] a person who is mad, foolish, or wild. • E.g. He must be a lunatic to drive his car so fast. • 2) adj. insane or wildly foolish. • E.g. This is a lunatic decision. • 11. eminent: (of a person) famous and respected • e.g. He is eminent for his learning. • Even the most eminent doctors could not cure him. • eminence: • [U] A position of great distinction or superiority • [C] A person of high station or great achievements.
Vocabulary(8) • 12. inculcate: (to fix (ideas and principles, etc. ) in the mind of (somebody) • e.g. It's important to inculcate these ideas in the minds of the young people. • Parents inculcate the young with a sense of duty. • [U] inculcation • 13. emancipation:[U] the action or state of setting or being free from political, moral, intellectual or social restrictions. • E.g.He was devoted to the emancipation of all mankind • Vt. emancipate
Vocabulary(9) • 14. prejudice: 1) [U] an unfair and often unfavorable feeling or opinion not based on reason or enough knowledge.(against) • A judge must be free from prejudice. • 法官不应存有偏见。 • 2) [U] injury caused to a person by the preconceived, unfavorable conviction of another or others.(to) • E.g. I will do nothing to the prejudice of my friend in this matter. • 必须明确, 这次让步对本委员会今后的决定不产生任何影响。 • It must be understood that this concession is made without prejudice to any future decision of the committee.
Vocabulary(10) • 15. elixir: an imaginary substance with which medieval scientists hoped to make people live for ever. • 16. confer:1) vt. to give or grant (an honor, etc.) • e.g. The queen conferred knighthoods on several distinguished men. • The honor was conferred on him just after the war. • 2) vi. To meet in order to consult or compare views. • E.g.工程师和技术员们还在讨论此次意外事故。 • The engineers are still conferring with technicians on the unexpected accident.
Vocabulary(11) • 17. appalling: adj. Horrifying, shocking • e.g. The starving natives is in appalling conditions • 这场可怕的战争何时结束? • When will this appalling war end? • Vt. appall: horrify, shock • E.g. The public were appalled when they heard the president had been murdered. • 18. vice:[C] a moral fault or weakness in somebody’s character. • E.g.说谎和残暴均是不道德的行为。 • Lying and cruelty are vices. • Adj. vicious: e.g. a vicious companion
Vocabulary(12) • 19. admixture: a thing added, especially as a minor ingredient. • Vt/i: admix: to mix; blend. • 20.egoism:[U] the state of mind in which one is always thinking about oneself and what is best for oneself. • antonym: altruism:Unselfish concern for the welfare of others; selflessness.
Vocabulary(13) • 21. horizon: 1)the limit of a person’s knowledge, experience, interest, etc. • E.g. 科学使我们大开新的眼界。 • Science gives us a new horizon. • 2) The apparent intersection of the earth and sky as seen by an observer. • E.g. I could see a ship on the horizon.
Vocabulary(14) • 22. impartiality: the condition of treating all rivals or disputants equally • e.g. Certain ministers are pressing for new rules on broadcasting impartiality. • Political impartiality is strengthened. • adj. impartial: unprejudiced • antonym: partial: favoring one person or side over another or others; biased or prejudiced: • E.g. I'm very partial to sweet foods. • a decision that was partial to the manager.
Language points of Text I (1-1) • 1. What view is commonly accepted in terms of knowledge and wisdom? • Key: Most people believe that knowledge is not equal to wisdom as history has suggested that the acquisition of knowledge does not necessarily lead to the increase of wisdom. • 2. Is there a definition of wisdom? • Key: no
Language points of Text I (1-2) • 3. Has the writer stated the purpose of the writing? • Key: Yes. The writer has made it clear that he would like to discuss what contributes to wisdom and how to teach wisdom. • 4. surpass: to do or be better than • e.g. The student was surpassing himself in mathematics. • Tom surpassed all expectations. • sur-: over, above, beyond. Other examples: surcharge, surrealism.
Language points of Text I (1-3) • 5.means: a method that enables a purpose to be fulfilled • e.g. He was prepared to use any means to get what he wanted. • The quickest means of travel is by plane. • Note: It is a plural noun, but is usually treated as singular.
Language points of Text I (2-1) • 1. Has it become more and more difficult for scientists and technicians to obtain a sense proportion of the things they study nowadays? • 2. What does “sense of proportion” mean? • 3. what message does the writer try to convey with the example of technicians? • 4.Why is comprehensiveness an important factor that constitutes wisdom?
Language points of Text I (2-2) • 1. Has it become more and more difficult for scientists and technicians to obtain a sense proportion of the things they study nowadays? • Key: yes. • 2. What does “sense of proportion” mean? • Key: the ability to take account of all the important factors in a problem and to attach to each its due weight. In other words, it refers to the ability to consider and judge correctly what factors are of more importance and what are of less importance. In the article, “comprehensiveness” is also used to refer to this ability.
Language points of Text I (2-3) • 3.what message does the writer try to convey with the example of technicians? • Key: Refer to Paragraph 2. The writer tries to tell us knowledge itself cannot save the world. Knowledge without wisdom will not benefit the world and in some cases will even pose a serious threat to humanity. So a wise person has to have a comprehensive view.
Language points of Text I (2-4) • 4.Why is comprehensiveness an important factor that constitutes wisdom? • Key: as human knowledge becomes more and more extensive and specialized, one who is engrossed in the study of his specific field may fail to foresee the outcome of the knowledge he is pursuing. This may do harm rather than good to mankind, since the outcome may be a disaster to the society. To be wise, one should also have the full comprehension of what the knowledge will bring about while he is working hard in his special field.
Language points of Text I (2-5) • 5. put first: take sth. as top priority. • 6. take account of: to take into consideration; to consider a specified thing along with other factors before reaching a decision or taking action. • e.g. In judging the progress he has made, we must take account of the fact that he has been working in great difficulties for several months. • 7. attach due weight to: to give proper importance to
Language points of Text I (2-6) • 8. extent: The range, or distance over which a thing extends • to the extent: to the degree • E.g. Education cannot decide the extent of one's knowledge. • 我在某种程度上同意你。 • I agree with you to a certain extent. • 9. complexity: The quality or condition of being complicated. • E.g. 错综复杂的公路图把我搞糊涂了。 • The complexity of the road map puzzled me.
Language points of Text I (2-7) • 10. require sth. of sb. : • E.g. 我们做了要求我们所做的一切。 • We did all that was required of us. • 11. absorb: 1) To occupy the full attention, interest, or time of; engross • E.g. The writer was absorbed in his writing • 2) The teacher ask us to absorb the full meaning of the text. • understand • 3) We will not absorb these charges. We cannot afford it. • To take over (a cost or costs).
Language points of Text I (2-8) • 12. intellectual & intelligent P76 • An intelligent person is somebody with a quick and clever mind. • An intellectual person is somebody who is well-educated and interested in subjects that need long periods of study. • So a small child, or even a dog can be intelligent but cannot be called intellectual. • Intelligent and intellectual are both adjective, but intellectual can also be a noun.
Language points of Text I (2-9) • 13. unintended: unplanned • 14.composition: [C] 1) A short essay, especially one written as an academic exercise. • 2) The combining of distinct parts or elements to form a whole. • E.g. I have no idea who decided the composition of the committee? • Vt. compose: To make up • E.g. Water is composed of hydrogen and oxygen.
Language points of Text I (2-10) • 15. disinterested & uninterested P76 • The adjective interested can mean: 1) desiring to learn or know • E.g. I’m very interested in local history. • 2) having an involvement in sth. • E.g. The lawyer invited the interested parties to discuss the problem. • Uninterested relates to sense 1), and disinterested sense 2).
Language points of Text I (2-11) • 16. be in the hands of: be controlled or be dealt with. • E.g. The defendant's fate is in the hands of the jury. • Dinner is in the hands of the chef. • 17.comprehensive: So large in scope or content as to include much • 18. vision: Unusual competence in discernment or perception; intelligent foresight
Language points of Text I (2-12) • 19. in the pursuit of: • E.g. throughout his life, he was in the pursuit of the truth/love. • pursuit: n. the action of following somebody or something • e.g. The police car raced through the streets in pursuit of another car. • He devoted every spare moment to the pursuit of his passion. • pursue: vt. To try to achieve • e.g. She is ruthless in pursuing her objectives. • It was wrong not to have pursued peace.
Language points of Text I (3-1) • 1. Should Historians be impartial and avoid being affected by their sentiment? • 2. constitute: • E.g. England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland constitute / compose / make up the United kingdom. • The United Kingdom consists of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. • [C]constitution • 3. end: goal • E.g. He gained the end by all means.
Language points of Text I (3-2) • 4. Many eminent historians have done more harm than good ... What many eminent historians have done is more damaging than helpful • 5. distort: vt. To give a false or misleading account of; misrepresent. • E.g. That newspaper accounts of international affairs are sometimes distorted. • [C/U] distortion • 6. medium: pl. media. An agency by which something is accomplished, conveyed, or transferred.
Language points of Text I (3-3) • 7. Hegel: German philosopher who proposed that truth is reached by a continuing dialectic.
Language points of Text I (3-4) • 8. 400 AD: from that year, Teutons invaded and conquered the Europe. • 9. standard-bearer: [C] a leading figure in a cause or movement • 10.by no means & by all means: • You can say by all means to tell somebody that you are very willing to allow them to do something or that you are in favor of a suggestion. • You use expressions such as by no means, not by any means, and by no manner of means to emphasize that something is not true.
Language points of Text I (4-1) • 1. What can wisdom help one in his pursuit of a life-long career? • Key: Wisdom can help one in his choice of a life-long pursuit. When one has to make a major career decision, he has to consider whether it is possible to achieve what he aims at. If it is too high to be achieved, he should learn to give it up and turn to an attainable goal.
Language points of Text I (4-2) • 2. Even an end which it would be noble to pursue if it were attainable may be pursued unwisely if it is inherently impossible of achievement. • It would be unwise to pursue a goal that is bound to fail though it might be noble to do so. • attainable : capable of being achieved • inherent: existing as an essential constituent or characteristic; intrinsic • "... which it would be noble to pursue if it were attainable" is the relative clause modifying "an end. " The first "it" in the relative clause is an anticipatory word functioning as the formal subject while the second a pronoun referring to " an end.