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Parts of speech

Parts of speech

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Parts of speech

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  1. Parts of speech Noun - Number

  2. Introduction • Singular (sg.) – oneobject (a book, a boy) orinvisiblewhole (snow, friendship). • Plural (pl.) – more thanoneobject (books, boys).

  3. Regularplural • by adding-s cat→ cats; book → books; room → rooms; • by adding-es (nounsending in -s; -ss; -x; -ch; -sh; -tch) bus→ buses; glass → glasses; box → boxes; bench → benches; brush → brushes; match → matches;

  4. Note: • Nounsending in -oby adding–es: hero → heroes; tomato → tomatoes; etc. • Nounsending in -oby adding–s: auto → autos; piano → pianos; radio → radios; kilo → kilos; etc. • Nounsending in -oby adding –s or–es : commando→ commandos/commandoesetc.

  5. Note: • Nounsending in -yafter a consonantchange–ies: baby → babies; country → countries; lady → ladies; fly → flies; etc. • Nounsending in -yafter a vowelagainby simplyadding–s: boy → boys; day → days; key → keys; etc.

  6. Irregularplural • Nounsending in -f; -fechange–ves: half → halves; life → lives; thief → thieves; shelf → shelves; etc. • Mutation: foot→feet; goose → geese; man → men; woman → women; mouse→ mice; tooth → teeth; etc.

  7. Zeroplural • Name of certainanimals (hunting): deer; salmon; sheep; etc. ThissheepisfromAustralia. These sheep arefromAustralia. • Craftandcertainnationalities: Thecraftwassunk. Allthecraftweresunk. He is a Vietnamese. TheVietnamese are notedfortheircookery.

  8. Collectivenouns • Whichhavepluralforms: Impersonal (whole):Thegovernmentistrying to controlinflation. Personal (members): Theshadowgovernment are callingfor a generalelectionsoon. Or a lot of: Thegovernments in allcountriesare trying to controlinflation.

  9. Collectivenouns • Whichdo not havepluralforms: Theyouthof todayis/arebetteroffthanweused to be. Givethe public whatitwants/theywant.

  10. Becareful! • Nounswith a pluralform + sg. verb: Thenewsisbadtoday. • Nounswith a pluralform + pl. verb: My trousers are wet. (glasses, scissors, scales, etc.) !Thepolice are lookingforthem.!

  11. Pluralwithdifferentmeanings • Colours – barvy/zástava (vlajka). • Compasses – buzoly/kružítko. • Draughts – průvany/dáma (hra). • Grounds – podlahy/usazenina. • Spirits – destilát/duševno.

  12. Literatura ALEXANDER, L. G. LongmanEnglishGrammar.1. vyd. London and New York: Longman, 1988. ISBN 0-582-55892-1. SVOBODA, A., KUČERA, K. English Parts of Speech. 1. vyd. Opava: SU v Opavě, 2005. ISBN 80-7248-199-1.

  13. Writeplural of these words: boy → family → knife → potato → brush → leaf → watch → radio → foot → lady → man → toy →

  14. Děkujiza pozornost.