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A New Birth of Freedom: The Civil War, 1861-1865 PowerPoint Presentation
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A New Birth of Freedom: The Civil War, 1861-1865

A New Birth of Freedom: The Civil War, 1861-1865

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A New Birth of Freedom: The Civil War, 1861-1865

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  1. A New Birth of Freedom: The Civil War, 1861-1865 14.1 The First Modern War

  2. Map

  3. The Two Combatants • Union many advantages • 22M people vs 9M (3.3M) slaves • Manufacturing, railroads, wealth • Confederate advantages • Very large country • Soldiers highly motivated • Patriotism high on both sides

  4. Soldiers • By 1865 men who served • Union 2M • Confederacy 900,000 • The Draft begins in 1862 • Union – farm boys, shopkeepers, artisans, city workers • Confederacy – small farmers, slaveowning officers

  5. Technology of War • Railroads vital • Junctions like Atlanta & Petersburg targets • Ironclads – revolutionize naval warfare • 1862 Monitor vs. Merrimac • Telegraph, observation balloons, hand grenades, submarines

  6. The Rifle • Grooved barrel = accuracy • Deadly at 600 yards • 620,000 men died = 5M today • New tactics • Heavy fortifications • Elaborate trenches • Advantage defense (Southern armies)

  7. POW Camps & Disease • Primitive medical care killed • Measles, dysentery, malaria, typhus killed • 50,000 men die in military prisons • Starvation & disease • 13,000 Union men at Andersonville, GA

  8. The Public and the War • Propaganda efforts to mobilize public opinion • Pictures, music, pamphlets • Dem. treason, war crimes, • Confederacy does the same • Newspapers print battle results & casualties

  9. Photography • Infant art form – brought the war home • 1862 shocking battlefield images • Antietam & many more • Mathew Brady corps of photographers • Fame & wealth • Art into business

  10. Mobilizing Resources • 1861 both sides unprepared • No national railroad gauge • No national banking system • No tax system • No accurate map of the southern states • Navy too small to blockade south

  11. Union becomes best fed and supplied army in history of world • Confederacy has shortages • Food, uniforms, shoes • Managed to manufacture own weapons • Union generals fail to capitalize • Officers not trained to lead • Wrong plan

  12. The War Begins • In The East the Union goal capture Richmond • 100 mile corridor between DC & Richmond • Army of the Potomac • 1st Bull Run July 1861 • Confederate victory • Shattered belief war would be quick • 800 men die • “Stonewall” Jackson

  13. Gen. Geo. McClellan • Assumes command of A of P • Turned volunteers in to soldiers • Wouldn’t fight • Overestimated enemy size • Democrat • Hopped a compromise would end war • Tried to save lives

  14. The War in the East, 1862 • June ’62 McClellan begins Peninsula Campaign • 100,000 vs. Lee’s Army of Northern VA • Lee stops McClellan in Seven Day’s Campaign • w/drew to DC • Aug ’62 Confederate victory at 2nd Bull Run

  15. Robert E. Lee • Robert E. Lee son of Rev. hero turns down Lincolns offer to run Union Army. • Army of Northern VA

  16. Lee Goes North • Bring border states in • Persuade England & France to recognize South • Influence fall elections • Maybe capture DC

  17. Battle of Antietam, MD • Sept. 17, 1862 • McClellan repels Lee • 4,300 (6300) died, 18,000 wounded • More die than in any other day in US history • Last victory in East for some time

  18. Thomas Bailey AumackHazlet NJ

  19. McClellan Replaced • Nov, 7, 1862 • Lincoln says, “If you don’t want to use the army, I should like to borrow it for a while” • Gen. Ambrose Burnside - AoP

  20. Fredricksburg, VA • Dec. ’62 • Gen. Ambrose Burnside AoP • Defeated badly by Lee • “It was not a fight, it was a massacre”

  21. The War in the West • Ulysses S. Grant successful in TN • Unsuccessful civilian, but good at war • Feb. ’62 Ft. Henry & Ft. Donelson • Survived surprise at Shiloh • Bloody fist fight – 2 days • Union 13,000 kwm – Con. 10,000 kwm • Apr. ’62 Adm. David Farragut captures NO • South’s largest city

  22. Ft. Henry & Ft. Donelson • Feb. 6, 16th • TN • “Unconditional Surrender” Grant • First Victories