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Civil War PowerPoint Presentation

Civil War

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Civil War

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Presentation Transcript

  1. Civil War

  2. 1st Bull Run (VA) • July 1861 • Beauregard (CSA) v. McDowell (USA) • Confederate victory • First major battle of war; significant casualties; showed neither side ready • McClellan became commander of Army of the Potomac (USA) • “Stonewall” Jackson receives nickname

  3. Naval Actions • After 1st Bull Run, 1861-62 mostly naval war; definite U.S. advantage • U.S. navy tightening blockade; seizing S. ports & gaining adv. on interior rivers • Mar. ’62 – Monitor (US) v. Virginia (CSA) - battled to a draw; Confed’s had to scuttle VA; birth of modern “ironclad” navy

  4. Battle of Shiloh (TN) • April 1862 • A.S. Johnston (CSA) v. Grant (USA) • Union victory • 23,000 casualties – “Bloody Shiloh” • A.S. Johnston killed • Showed Confederates would be unable to hold on to Ms. River Valley • Both armies would need to adopt more defensive positions when in camp

  5. Peninsula Campaign (VA) • May-July 1862 • Johnston / Lee (CSA) v. McClellan (USA) • Union attempt to take Richmond from east • Confederate victory • McClellan failed to take Richmond • McClellan relieved of command – John Pope given command of Army of Potomac

  6. 2nd Battle of Bull Run (VA) • August 1862 • Lee (CSA) v. Pope (USA) • Confederate victory • Lee goes North for first time • Pope relieved and McClellan given command of Army of Potomac again

  7. Battle of Antietam (MD) • Sept. 17, 1862 • Lee (CSA) v. McClellan (USA) • Bloodiest single day of the war (23,000 casualties) • Battle was a technical stalemate (tie) but strategically a Union victory (Lee retreated back South) • Emancipation Proclamation issued after this battle • McClellan relieved of command

  8. Emancipation Proclamation 1863 • Reasons for hesitation: • Slavery protected by Constitution & Fed. Gov’t had no power over where already existed • Doubted most Northerners would fight to free slaves • Did not want to alienate border states where slavery existed (MO, KY, MD)

  9. Emancipation ProclamationIssued: After Antietam Effective: Jan. 1, 1863 • Why Lincoln Changed his mind: 1. Wanted to hurt South (war effort) as much as possible; freeing slaves would do that (President’s role as commander in chief) 2. Wanted to prevent foreign intervention 3. Needed to clarify N.’s war aims; answer slavery question

  10. Emancipation Proclamation • Significance / importance: • Basically all objectives achieved: • Clarified N.’s war aims – made the war a crusade for human freedom • Prevented foreign intervention • Encouraged recruitment of black volunteers into Union army (300,000)

  11. Battle of Fredericksburg (VA) • December 1862 • Lee (CSA) v. Burnside (USA) • Confederate victory • Burnside suffered heavy losses after repeated head-on attacks against Lee’s artillery and dug-in infantry • Burnside relieved of command – Joseph Hooker given command of A. of Potomac

  12. Battle of Chancellorsville (VA) • May 1863 Lee (CSA) v. Hooker (USA) • Confederate victory – Known as Lee’s greatest victory • Stonewall Jackson shot by his own men and died • Hooker relieved of command – George G. Meade given command of A. of Potomac • Lee decided to go North again – leads to the Battle of Gettysburg

  13. Battle of Gettysburg (PA) • July 1-3, 1863 • Lee (CSA) v. Meade (USA) • 3rd day – Pickett’s Charge (13,000 men) • Union victory – 51,000 casualties • Lee lost 1/3 of his army • Last Confederate offensive • Guaranteed no European recognition for Confederacy

  14. Siege and Fall of Vicksburg (MS) • May – July 1863 • Pemberton (CSA) v. Grant (USA) • Union victory • City surrendered on July 4th after a long siege – Pemberton surrendered 30,000 men • Completed Union strategy of splitting Confederacy on two (last stronghold on Miss. River)

  15. July 1863 As Turning Point • Major Confederate defeats at Gettysburg and Vicksburg – significant casualties for Confederacy could not be replaced • Lee could never again seriously threaten Northern soil – could only fight on the defensive • Europeans finally shied away from recognition of Confederacy • Richmond began to consider peace negotiations • End of war finally seemed in sight for Union

  16. Chattanooga (TN) • Nov. 1863 Bragg (CSA) v. Grant (USA) • Union victory; became staging ground for Atlanta campaign in Spring of 1864 • Grant attacked Bragg’s forces and drove them out of Chattanooga into N. Ga. • Bragg relieved; Johnston given command of Confed. forces • Grant given command of all Union forces – went East to face Lee • Sherman given command of Union forces in W.

  17. Atlanta Campaign (GA) • April – September 1864 • Johnston (CSA) v. Sherman (USA) • Sherman methodically moved toward Atlanta – after Battle of Kennesaw Mtn. (June), Johnston relieved and Hood given command • Hood attacked Sherman 3 times trying to drive him away from Atlanta – Battle of Peachtree Creek, Battle of July 22 (Atlanta), Battle of Ezra Church – all Confederate defeats

  18. Atlanta Falls • Sherman laid siege to the city • Hood ordered to withdraw and save his forces • City surrendered to Sherman in Sept. • Sherman began preparations for March to the Sea • Fall of Atlanta aided Lincoln’s reelection

  19. March to the Sea (GA) • Nov-Dec. 1864 Atlanta to Savannah • Sherman (USA) v. no serious resistance • 60 mi. wide swath of destruction from Atl to Sav • Destroyed bridges, RR’s, factories; crops, homes; slaughtered livestock • “Total War” strategy – destroy not only enemy’s armies, but also its means of supporting armies; civilian centers became targets • Savannah surrendered Dec. 21 • Boosted Union morale; lowered S. morale

  20. Sherman in Atlanta

  21. “Total War” in Virginia • Grant kept relentless pressure on Lee beginning in Spring of 1864 • War in East became a war of attrition; Grant could replace his losses; Lee couldn’t • Almost continuous combat – Wilderness, Spotsylvania, Cold Harbor, Petersburg • Siege of Petersburg June ’64-April ’65 • Trench warfare • Lee suffered desertions during the winter

  22. “Total War” in Shenandoah Valley • Gen. Phil Sheridan; Union cavalry commander led destruction in Shenandoah Valley • Grant instructed him to shut down the Southern source of supply…“Do all the damage to railroads and crops you can… If the war is to last another year, we want the Shenandoah Valley to remain a barren waste” • Sheridan was successful: “A crow flying over the valley would have to carry its own lunch”

  23. How did U.S. justify “Total War”? / Impact of the “Total War” Strategy • Make it as difficult as possible for the South to continue the war effort • Necessary to destroy the South’s ability to continue fighting – wage war not only on armies, but also South’s support system • Shorten the war; save lives; end everyone’s suffering • Additional significance: changed the characteristics of modern warfare

  24. Appomattox (VA) • April 1865 • Lee (CSA) v. Grant (USA) • Lee abandoned trenches; fled West trying to unite his forces with Johnston’s • Richmond fell to Union forces • Grant caught up with Lee near Appomattox Courthouse; Lee surrendered to Grant on April 9th • Grant offered generous terms of surrender • This is considered to mark the end of the war

  25. Lincoln’s Assassination • April 14, 1865 • Killed by John Wilkes Booth • Shot in the head as he watched a play at Ford’s Theatre • Carried across street to Peterson House • Died early the next morning • Booth was pursued and killed in a shootout • His 4 co-conspirators were tried, convicted and executed

  26. Booth and the Presidential Box

  27. Execution of Lincoln Conspirators

  28. Key People in the Civil War

  29. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson • Lee’s key “second in command” • Received nickname at 1st Bull Run • Instrumental in Lee’s victory at Chancellorsville; shot by his own men & died

  30. Ulysses S. Grant • Commanded Union forces in West; Shiloh, Vicksburg, Chattanooga • Given supreme command of all Union armies in early 1864 • Accepted Lee’s surrender in April of 1865 • Later elected President

  31. Joseph E. Johnston • Commanded Confederate forces during Peninsula Campaign until wounded • Commanded Army of TN during Atlanta Campaign; faced Sherman at Kennesaw Mtn. • Relieved of command; replaced by John B. Hood • Surrendered to Sherman in N.C. ending the war

  32. Robert E. Lee • Key Confederate General • Offered command of all Union armies; declined • Defeated US forces in Eastern Theatre “61-”63 • Defeated at Gettysburg • Surrendered to Grant at Appomattox

  33. Clara Barton • Gov’t clerk • Quit her job to provide supplies and first aid to Union soldiers on battlefield • Became known as “the angel of the battlefield” • Founded the American Red Cross after the war

  34. Dorothea Dix • Mental health reformer • Crusader for prison reform • Headed and organized Union army’s nursing corps • Worked to improve hospitals and sanitation conditions in camps

  35. William T. Sherman • Served in West w/ Grant; Shiloh, Vicksburg, Chattanooga • Became overall commander in W. Theatre early 1864 • Led Atlanta Campaign; forced city’s surrender and led March to the Sea

  36. John Wilkes Booth • Actor and Southern sympathizer • Conspired to kidnap Lincoln and exchange for prisoners of war • War ended; Booth’s plan changed to assassination • Shot Lincoln April 14, 1865