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Civil War facts

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  1. Civil War facts More than three million men fought in the Civil War about 900,000 for the Confederacy and 2.1 million for the Union. An estimated 300 women disguised themselves as men and fought in the ranks. More than 620,000 people, or two percent of the population, died in the Civil War. Approximately 6,000 battles, skirmishes, and engagements were fought during the Civil War.

  2. Civil War facts There were over 2,000 boys who were 14 years-old or younger in the Union ranks. Three hundred were 13 years or less, while there were 200,000 no older than 16 years. At the Battle of Shiloh, on the banks of the Tennessee River, more Americans fell than in all previous American wars combined. There were 23,700 casualties. At Fredericksburg in 1862, the Confederate trenches stretched for a distance of seven miles. The troop density was 11,000 per mile, or six men to the yard. 3,530 Native Americans fought for the Union, of which, 1,018 were killed.

  3. Civil War facts President Abraham Lincoln was the first president to be assassinated. Missouri sent 39 regiments to fight in the siege of Vicksburg: 17 to the Confederacy and 22 to the Union. At the start of the war, the value of all manufactured goods produced in all the Confederate states added up to less than one-fourth of those produced in New York State alone. Surgeons never washed their hands after an operation, because all blood was assumed to be the same, nor did he wash his instruments

  4. Civil War facts On July 4, 1863, after 48 days of siege, Confederate General John C. Pemberton surrendered the city of Vicksburg to the Union’s General, Ulysses S. Grant. For the next 81 years, the city Vicksburg did not celebrate the Fourth of July. Disease killed twice as many men during the war than did battle wounds. On both sides of the conflict, potential recruits were offered monetary rewards, or "bounties," for enlisting, as much as $677 in New York. "Bounty jumping” soon became so popular, that hundreds of men signed up, and then deserted, to enlist again elsewhere.

  5. Civil War facts For those who were drafted, the law allowed them to pay a substitute to go in their place. Another type of "bounty jumper” was born when men would hire out to more than one draftee and then make a hasty exit once they were paid. The record for bounty jumping was held by John O’Connor, who admitted to hiring himself out 32 times before being caught. He received a 4 year prison term. Though African Americans constituted less than one percent of the northern population, by the war’s end made up ten percent of the Union Army. A total of 180,000 black men, more than 85% of those eligible, enlisted. By the time of the Confederate surrender in 1865, there were more African Americans in the Union army than there were soldiers in the Confederate army.

  6. Civil War facts Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest had 30 horses shot from under him and personally killed 31 men in hand-to-hand combat. "I was a horse ahead at the end," he said. The words "In God We Trust" first appeared on a U.S. coin in 1864. By the end of the war, Unionists from every state except South Carolina had sent regiments to fight for the North.  On November 9, 1863, President Lincoln attended a theater in Washington, D.C., to see The Marble Heart. In the play was an accomplished actor named John Wilkes Booth. On May 13, 1865, a month after Lee’s surrender at Appomattox, Private John J. Williams of the 34th Indiana became the last man killed in the Civil War, in a battle at Palmito Ranch, Texas. The final skirmish was a Confederate victory.

  7. Civil War facts Hiram Revels of Mississippi became the first black man ever elected to the U.S. Senate. He filled the seat last held by Jefferson Davis.  The chance of surviving a wound in Civil War days was 7 to 1. About 15 percent of the wounded died in the Civil War. Besides the rifle and cannon, weapons consisted of revolvers, swords, cutlasses, hand grenades, Greek fire and land mines.

  8. Civil War facts George Pickett’s doomed infantry charge at Gettysburg was the first time he took his division into combat. The diseases most prevalent during the Civil War were dysentery, typhoid fever, malaria, pneumonia, arthritis, and the acute diseases of childhood, such as measles, mumps, and malnutrition. The principal weapon of the war and the one by which 80 percent of all wounds were produced was a single-shot, muzzle-loading rifle in the hands of foot soldiers.

  9. Civil War facts Fully armed, a soldier carried about seven pounds of ammunition, including a cartridge box with 40 rounds. If an extensive battle was anticipated, he might carry an additional 60 rounds. The muzzle-loading rifle could be loaded at the rate of about three times a minute. Its maximum range was about 1,000 yards. During the Battle of Antietam, 12,401 Union men were killed, missing or wounded; it was the bloodiest single day of the Civil War. Though artillery was used extensively, only about 10 percent of the wounded were the victims of artillery fire.

  10. Civil War facts Many doctors who saw service in the Civil War had never been to medical school, but had served an apprenticeship in the office of an established practitioner. In the battle of Gettysburg, 1,100 ambulances were in use. The medical director of the Union army boasted that all the wounded were picked up from the field within 12 hours after the battle was over. This was a far cry from the second battle of Bull Run, when many of the wounded were left on the field in the rain, heat, and sun for three or four days. Eighty percent of all wounds during the Civil War were in the extremities.

  11. Civil War facts The first U. S. Naval hospital ship, the Red Rover, was used on the inland waters during the Vicksburg campaign. During the Battle of Murfreesboro, the Union artillery fired 20,307 rounds and the infantry exhausted over 2,000,000 rounds. The total weight of the projectiles fired was in excess of 375,000 pounds. At the Battle of First Bull Run or Manassas, between 8,000 and 10,000 bullets were fired for every man killed or wounded. The first organized ambulance corps were used in the Peninsular campaign and at Antietam.

  12. Civil War facts At Cold Harbor, Virginia, 7,000 Americans died in 20 minutes. Senator John J. Crittendon of Kentucky had two sons who became major generals during the Civil War: one for the North, one for the South. During the Shenandoah Valley Campaign of 1862, "Stonewall" Jackson marched his force of 16,000 men over 600 miles in 39 days (15 ½ miles a day with 50 pounds of gear), fighting five major battles and defeating four separate armies totaling 63,000 men.

  13. Civil War facts In the Vicksburg campaign in 1863, Grant won five battles within a period of 18 days, captured 40 field guns, and inflicted casualties of approximately 5,200 on the South. He captured 31,600 prisoners, 172 cannons, and 6,000 small arms when Vicksburg fell. It was the greatest military haul ever made in the Western hemisphere. Black soldiers were paid $10 per month for serving in the Union army, while white soldiers received $13 per month.  In June, 1864, both got a $3 raise.

  14. Civil War facts Lincoln did not believe that whites and blacks could live together in peace. He had planned to relocate the entire black population of the United States to Central America. Union and Confederate forces stationed at Fredericksburg during the winter of 1862 traded items by constructing small boats and floating them back and forth across the Rappahannock River. The first military decoration formally authorized by the American government was, the Medal of Honor created by an act of Congress in December 1861. The award was to be given to those members of the armed forces who "shall distinguish themselves by their gallantry in action, and other soldier like qualities. It was liberally awarded during the Civil War to about 1,200 men.

  15. Civil War facts The first civilian killed by the abolitionist John Brown and his cohorts at Harper’s Ferry was a free black man. During the Peninsular campaign in the spring of 1862, as many as 5,000 wounded were brought into a hospital where there was only one medical man and five hospital stewards to care for them. The last land engagement of the Civil War was fought on May 13, 1865 at the Battle of Palmito Ranch in far south Texas, more than a month after Gen. Lee's surrender at Appomattox. Missouri sent more men to war, in proportion to her population, than any other state. The total number of Missouri Volunteers who served was 199,111.

  16. Civil War facts In the infantry and artillery units, officers received the following pay at the start of the war: - Colonels - $212 - Lieutenant Colonels - $181 - Majors - $169 - Captains - $115.50 - Lieutenants - $105.50 Other line and staff officers drew an average of about $15 per month more. Pay for one, two, and three star generals was $315, $457, and $758, respectively.

  17. Civil War facts More than 3,000 horses were killed at Gettysburg The U.S. government estimated in January, 1863 that the war was costing $2.5 million per day. A final official estimate in 1879 totaled all expenses at $6,190,000,000. The Confederacy spent an estimated $2,099,808,707. Approximately 30,000 Union soldiers died as prisoners of war. The number of Confederates soldiers is estimated at only a little more at 31,000. In addition to its dead and wounded from battle and disease, the Union listed sunstroke fatalities at 313. The Confederate pay structure was modeled after that of the US Army. Privates continued to be paid at the prewar rate of $11 per month until June 1864, when the pay of all enlisted men was raised $18 per month.

  18. Civil War facts If a statue of a person on a horse has both front legs in the air, the person died in battle; if the horse has one front leg in the air, the person died as a result of wounds received in battle; if the horse has all four legs on the ground, the person died of natural causes. After the Battle of Gettysburg the discarded rifles were collected and sent to Washington to be inspected and reissued. Of the 37,574 rifles recovered, 24,000 were still loaded. No one knows the identity of the war's youngest soldier, one Confederate solider named George S. Lamkin of Winona, Mississippi, joined Stanford's Mississippi Battery when he was just eleven.  He was severely wounded at the Battle of Shiloh.

  19. Civil War facts The bloodiest battles of the War were: Gettysburg - 51,116 casualties in three days, Antietam - 22,726 casualties in one day, and the Seven Days Battle where 36,463 men lost their lives. Of the 425 Confederate generals, 146 were graduates of West Point. Almost one third of the U.S. Army officers resigned to serve the Confederacy. The number of Union deserters during the Civil War is estimated at over 200,000, while deserters from the South, are estimated at just a little more than 100,000.

  20. Civil War facts More shells were discharged in the single battle of Gettysburg than were employed in all the battles that Napoleon ever fought. Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson often went about camp handing out Sunday school leaflets. Most infantry rifles were equipped with bayonets, but very few men wounded by bayonet showed up at hospitals. The conclusion was that the bayonet was not a lethal weapon. The explanation probably lay in the fact that opposing soldiers did not often actually come to grips and, when they did, were prone to use their rifles as clubs. Thomas Stewart, aged 92 years, of East Newtown, Ohio, was a private in the 101st Ohio regiment, and took part in the battle of Perryville, where he was complimented for his bravery and soldierly bearing.

  21. Civil War facts An Iowa regiment had a rule that any man who uttered an oath should read a chapter in the Bible. Several of them got nearly through the Old Testament. There were 100 men in a Company and 10 Companies in a Regiment. There were more Northern-born Confederate generals than Southern-born Union generals. Black Union soldiers refused their salaries for 18 months to protest being paid lower wages than white soldiers. Before William Tecumseh Sherman became a great Union general, he was demoted for apparent insanity.

  22. Civil War facts Harriet Tubman led a raid to free slaves during the Civil War. On June 1, 1863, Tubman and Union Colonel James Montgomery steamed into the interior with 300 black Union soldiers. The troops swept through nearby plantations, burning homes and barns as Union gunboats sounded their whistles. Slave men, women and children came streaming from the countryside, reminding Tubman of “the children of Israel, coming out of Egypt.” More than 720 slaves were shuttled to freedom during the mission. In the first raid led by a woman during the Civil War, Tubman liberated 10 times the number of slaves she had freed in 10 years on the Underground Railroad.

  23. Civil War facts More men died in the Civil War than any other American conflict, and two-thirds of the dead perished from disease.Approximately 625,000 men died in the Civil War, more Americans than in World War I, World War II, the Korean War and the Vietnam War combined. If the names of the Civil War dead were arranged like the names on the Vietnam Memorial, it would stretch over 10 times the wall’s length. Two percent of the population died, the equivalent of 6 million men today. Rifles were by far the war’s deadliest weapons, but deadlier still was disease. In 1861, as armies massed, men once protected from contagion by isolation marched shoulder to shoulder and slept side by side in unventilated tents. Camps became breeding grounds for childhood diseases such as mumps, chicken pox and measles. One million Union soldiers contracted malaria, and epidemics were common.

  24. Civil War facts 1.  Civil War (1861-65):  618,222 2.  World War II (1941-1945):  405,399 3.  World War I (1917-1918):  116,516 4.  Vietnam War (1965-73):  58,177 5.  Korean War (1950-53):  36,568 6.  American Revolution (1775-83):  25,324 7.  War of 1812 (1812-15):  19,465 8.  Mexican-American War (1846-48):  13,283 9.  Indian Wars (1775-1891): 4,100 ± 10.  Iraq War (2003-Present):  3990