Vietnam • Using your reading, complete as much of the Mad Lib notes as possible. You will have 5 minutes.
CONCLUSION ON VIETNAM • Vietnam was a complicated issue • Read Nixon’s Speech on Vietnamization: • What is the basis of Nixon’s policy in Vietnam? • To what extent is Nixon’s policy good, sound policy for the Cold War Era? • Why does Nixon bring up protestors at the end of his speech? What is his purpose?
THE PRAGUE SPRING REVIEW QUESTIONS: HOW DID THE VIETNAM WAR CHANGE THE UNITED STATES’ OUTLOOK ABOUT OUR WORLD STANDING? WHY WAS THE HUNGARIAN REVOLUTION SUCH A DISASTER FOR THE SOVIETS? WHAT WAS THE IMPACT OF THE BERLIN WALL ON COLD WAR TENSIONS? HOW ARE THESE EVENTS SIMILAR IN THEIR EFFECT ON THE COLD WAR?
1968…Don’t Forget! • In 1968, the Tet Offense was launched and the United States began to see serious problems in its policy in Vietnam • In 1968 in Europe the Soviets also had a big problem, known as the Prague Spring
Alexander Dubcek • Born in Slovakia in 1921Lived in U.S.S.R under Stalin • Product of U.S.S.R Education system, loyal communist • Post-WWII, KGB removed any potential enemies from Eastern Europe • Replaced with pro-Soviet supporters • 1958, Dubcek became head of Communist party in Czechoslovakia
Antonin Novtny • Leader of Czechoslovakia from 1957-1968 • His quasi-authoritarian practices led to calls for reform: • accountability • proper elections • responsibility of leaders to society • Reforms were half-hearted at best • Forced to resign in January of 1968, replaced by Dubcek
The Start to the Prague Spring • On April 5th 1968, Dubcek implemented new reform: • Amendments to the constitution of Czechoslovakia brought back some political democracy and personal freedom. • Czech Communist Party would remain the main but that totalitarian aspects of the party to be reduced. • Communist Party members were given the right to challenge party policy • Party members were given the right to act “according to their conscience” • End of censorship and the right of Czech citizens to criticize the government.
Soviet Leadership? • Khrushchev was kicked out of power in 1964
Ending the Prague Spring • Dubček assured Moscow that they would remain a member of the Warsaw pact • However, on August 20th/21st troops from the Warsaw Pact invaded Czechoslovakia to reassert the authority of Moscow. • Majority of troops were Soviet, but other Warsaw Pact nations were involved too. • Invasion was bloodless as the Czech military was no match
Aftermath • Reforms were abandoned. • Dubcek arrested and sent to Moscow. • Told to undo reforms and sent back to Prague • Still remained in high leadership in the Communist Party • While he did undo reforms, he was removed from office in April 1969 • The tanks that rolled through the streets of Prague reaffirmed to the West that the people of Eastern Europe were oppressed and denied the democracy that existed in Western Europe.
Significant Policy-Brezhnev Doctrine "...each Communist party is responsible not only to its own people, but also to all the socialist countries, to the entire Communist movement. Whoever forgets this, in stressing only the independence of the Communist party, becomes onesided. He deviates from his international duty...Discharging their internationalist duty toward the fraternal peoples of Czechoslovakia and defending their own socialist gains, the U.S.S.R. and the other socialist states had to act decisively and they did act against the antisocialist forces in Czechoslovakia.” • Soviet foreign policy outlined in 1968 • Called for Warsaw Pact forces to intervene in any Eastern Bloc nation which was seen to compromise communist rule and the U.S.S.R