Map assignment • Using map on page 726 or 742in text, label the following: • Countries: Cambodia, China, Laos, North Vietnam, South Vietnam • Cities: Saigon, Hanoi • Political Features: Ho Chi Minh Trial • Physical Features: 17th Parallel, Gulf of Tonkin
Domino Theory • If one nation falls under Communist control, nearby nations will also fall under Communist control.
Geneva Accords • Temporarily divided Vietnam along the 17thparallel. • Communists and their leader, Ho Chi Minh, Controlled North Vietnam • Anti-Communist nationalists controlled South Vietnam
Communist infiltration! • Communism in Vietnam • Vietcong (Communist opposition group in South) attack Diem government • Ho Chi Minh Trial—a network of paths used by North Vietnamese to transport supplies to Vietcong in South
Great American Lie! • Gulf of Tonkin Resolution • Resolution adopted in 1964 • Provided the President broad powers to wage war in Vietnam • Greatly escalated America’s involvement in the conflict. • Read pages 204-205 in your text. • How does the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution expand president al powers?
What events discussed in Rah thus far could have led to johnson’s fear of losing vietnam to communism? Candy Question:
Big Picture • After World War II, nationalist and communist rebels in the French colony of Vietnam fought for their independence. A 1954 agreement ending the colonial war split the country into communist North Vietnam and democratic South Vietnam. When France pulled out the following year, the United States stepped in to prop up South Vietnam. Over the years, American involvement grew and led to the introduction of U.S. ground forces.
The Draft 1945 - 1973 • Fill vacancies in the armed forces • Could not be filled through voluntary means • Deferments and objectors. • LBJ ended in 1965 • 100,000 Dodgers
The Lottery • 1969 Lottery • In 1973, the draft ended • All-Volunteer military. • Jimmy Carter Pardoned Draft Dodgers
Average Service Member • 2/3 were volunteers. • 79% had high school education. • Average age was 19 to 20 years old. • The average infantryman in Vietnam saw about 240 days of combat in one year. • Tour of Duty was 1 year.
A working class war • A “Manipulatable” Draft - Most soldiers in war drafted (18-26) • Medical deferments • College deferments • Question arose: Why are the government officials who support this war not sending their children to fight in this war?
More Stats • One out of every 10 Americans who served in Vietnam was a casualty • 86% Caucasians • 12.5% Black • 1.2% Other races • Amputations or crippling wounds were 300% higher • 75,000 Vietnam veterans are severely disabled
Johnson Americanizes the War March 1965—3,500 Marines April 1965—60,000 combat troops July 1965—125,000 combat troops By 1967—500,000 U.S. troops
Vietcong’s tactics • Guerilla Warfare • Hit-and-run ambush • Booby traps • Land mines • Elaborate tunnel networks
United States’ tactics • War of Attrition • Gradual wearing down of the enemy by continuous harassment • Napalm • Agent Orange • Search-and-destroy missions
Body Count/Search and Destroy Mi Lai massacre, more on this later.
The Living Room War • Credibility Gap • Belief that there was a gap between what government was reporting and what was really happening • Although polls showed large majority of Americans supported the war, media images led America to question intentions
Fortunate Son Lyric analysis • Do you believe CCR opposed or supported the war in Vietnam based on the lyrics? • In what way does the song criticize the American government? • How do the lyrics demonstrate the idea that the Vietnam conflict was a working-class war?
“I Don’t see anyway of winning” • Directions: • Actively read document • On a separate sheet of paper, answer the following questions • How did Johnson’s public actions contrast with his private opinion regarding the Vietnam War? • What effect did the war in Vietnam have on Johnson? • How important is if for a President to have faith in a victory when he enters his country into war? • What parallels does the writer make between Vietnam and the present day War in Iraq? What similarities can you draw between Iraq and Vietnam?
Letters Home Assignment When finished the documentary, you are required to write a detailed paragraph that addresses the following prompt: How does the morale of the soldiers stationed in Vietnam progress throughout the war?
Quote Analysis “I may disagree with what you say but I will defend to death your right to say it” • Many soldiers in Vietnam have the quote above a response when asked their opinion on the antiwar demonstrations back home. Put yourself in the place of a young draftee and answer the following questions. • What is the meaning of the quote? • Should freedom of speech be defended at any cost?
The Vietcong Maintain Popular Support Division of South Vietnamese Several in countryside joined Vietcong People in cities backed government of South Vietnam Several remained neutral
Primary Account “Our people no longer want to take sides in this war that is gradually but inexorably destroying us. We have no desire to be called an ‘outpost of the Free World’ or to be praised for being the ‘vanguard people in the world socialist revolution.’ We simply want to be a people—the Vietnamese people.” Ly Qui Chung, Saigon newspaper editor, 1970
Primary Account “We would go through a village before dawn, rousting everybody out of bed, kicking down doors and dragging them out if they didn’t move fast enough. They all had underground bunkers inside their huts to protect themselves against bombing and shelling. But to use the bunkers were Vietcong hiding places, and we’d blow them up with dynamite—and blow up the huts too. At the end of the day, the villagers would be turned loose. Their homes had been wrecked, their chickens killed, their rice confiscated—and if they weren’t pro-Vietcong before we got there, they sure as hell were by the time they left.”
Peace Organizations • New Left • Students for a Democratic Society • equality, freedom, fight poverty • Counter Culture • Chipped away at war involvement • Only 20% of University Students participated • Average American also protested