Objectives for the Unit • You will be able to devise how the various differences between the North and South led to the war. • You will be able to devise how the war evolved from year to year. • You will be able to devise how the leadership and strategies of both the Union and Confederate armies affected the outcome of the war. • You will be able to devise and create an effective knowledge of the key battles during the war. • You will be able to devise how the war ended, and know the turning points of the war.
1860 Election Results Red: Lincoln Blue: Douglas Yellow: Bell Green: Breckinridge
A Threat as told in a Texas newspaper on November 13, 1860 • The Governor [of South Carolina], “earnestly recommended that, in the event of Abraham Lincoln’s election to the Presidency, a convention for the people of this State be immediately called to consider and determine for themselves the mode and measure of redress.”[The Governor stated the following]"That the only alternative left, in my judgment, is the secession of South Carolinafrom the Federal Union. The indications of many of the Southern States justify the conclusion that the secession of South Carolina would be immediately followed, if not adopted simultaneously, by them, and ultimately by the entire South…. The State has, with great unanimity, declared that she has the right peaceably to succeed, and no power on earth can rightfully prevent it.”
‘Secessionitis’ • In 1860, there were 34 states in the Union, after Kansas was admitted as a free state • Although sectionalism was rampant, no one really thought that a state would actually leave the union • On Dec. 20, 1860, South Carolina became the first state to secede • By the time Lincoln took office, 7 states had left the Union- with at least six more considering secession • Lincoln did not want to have a violent struggle to achieve reunion, but soon things were out of his control • By April 1861, Southern troops had surrounded Fort Sumter in Charleston, SC, and prepared to lay siege on the fort.
Lincoln calls out the South! ‘In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow-countrymen, and not in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war. The Government will not assail you. You can have no conflict without being yourselves the aggressors. You have no oath registered in heaven to destroy the Government, while I shall have the most solemn one to ‘preserve, protect, and defend it.’ Abraham Lincoln’s First Inaugural Address March 4, 1861 What is Lincoln saying here? Why would he need to say this?
The Confederacy • The Confederate States of America (CSA) was formed by early 1861 • It’s Constitution was very similar to the US constitution • However, they had a flaw that was very hard to overcome: they were just a confederation, not a union • Why might that be a flaw?
It’s On!!: Fort Sumter, SC • April 12, 1861, 4:30 AM: Confederate batteries (cannons) fired upon Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor • The commander of the fort realized that he nowhere to go and that he wouldn’t get reinforcements • They quietly surrendered, no one died. • The South rejoiced in the news, the North was shocked • Why would this be a very important event, even though there wasn’t much bloodshed?
Time to Fight!! • Immediately following the fall of Ft. Sumter, Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers to join the army for 90 days- hundreds of thousands enlisted • The Confederates called for 50,000 volunteers – same result • Both sides believed that the war would last around 90 days – why? • Some were surprised by Lincoln’s actions to call so many volunteers • Although he felt he was doing something necessary, not everyone agreed with him • Perhaps most importantly, four more states left the Union: Virginia, North Carolina, Arkansas, and Tennessee
Lincoln’s Controversial Choices • Technically, Lincoln had no authority to form an army, only Congress could • Lincoln also ordered a blockade of the Southern coast – can a President do that? • In addition, he asked the Treasury department to raise funds to wage war • Because Congress wasn’t in session, he felt that he couldn’t wait to do something
Aftermath of Ft. Sumter • Lincoln had to deal with another crisis: what if Maryland seceded? • Immediately, Lincoln moved without the consent of Congress and the Supreme Court to suspend habeas corpus • Lincoln sent troops to Baltimore to arrest and imprison the mayor and other secessionists- without giving a formal charge • Chief Justice Taney said Lincoln had gone beyond his powers • Lincoln ignored him, and this prevented the Supreme Court in doing anything big afterwards
Reactions to Lincoln’s decisions • Lincoln got away with suspending habeas corpus because Congress was in recess • When they returned, he simply said he had no choice, and they agreed with him • To get around any Constitutional issues, the military would arrest people instead of law enforcement • This protected him since he treated them as prisoners of war instead of civilian prisoners • He felt that the Executive Branch had a duty to act swiftly, and could not wait for Congress to make up their mind.
Objectives for both sides • Union: to re-unify the nation, not emancipate the slaves • Confederacy: fight to the point where the Union would want to stop fighting, and to get European nations to get involved
The Big Problems for the Union • At the beginning of the war, the Union army had about 17,000 troops, most of whom had never seen battle • Barely any commanders had experience in battle as well • Lincoln had one choice for the command of the army: Robert E. Lee • Lee went with Virginia, because he didn’t want to fight against his neighbors and friends • As a result, the Union was left without a capable commander
Advantages/Disadvantages for the Union • Outnumbered the South in population 21 million to 9 million: about 4 million slaves were a part of the South’s population • Obviously had an overwhelming superiority in terms of industrial capability (100,000 factories in the North vs. 100,000 factory workers in the South) • Army was better equipped and more organized into proper divisions and regiments • Lack of leadership and experience amongst the higher ranking officers • Completely underestimated the determination of the Confederates
Advantages and Disadvantages for the Confederacy • Had a much better knowledge of the land, since they were fighting in their ‘own backyards’ • Defending their homes and their way of life… whereas the Union was trying to stop it • Much better military leadership in Lee, Beauregard, Jackson, etc. • Poorly equipped and outnumbered, hard to get around via bad transportation network • Very little industry to provide for all the weapons and whatnot needed for the war
The Plans • The Union thought the best way to defeat the Confederates was to surround them and ‘push’ from multiple points • Because the Confederates were surrounded, they would attack outwardly from a central location • Of course, this was a big disadvantage since they already were outnumbered and out supplied • However, they were quick to attack and were always on the move, which made them difficult to find • The Union wasted several opportunities to end the war, especially after Antietam and Gettysburg
First Bull Run: July 21, 1861 • Even though little battles were happening across the country, there was no decisive battle for the first few months of the war • In mid-July 1861, McDowell decided to attack the Confederates • His goal was to cut off a Southern railroad at Manassas Junction, about 25 miles west of Washington, DC • After that, the goal was to take Richmond, the Confederate capital • The Confederate Army learned of his plan through a spy, Rose Greenhow and they waited for him along the banks of Bull Run Creek, near Manassas
Bull Run Cont’d. • Some prominent Washingtonians came and watched the battle with picnic baskets and champagne… some people just don’t think. • McDowell and his 30,000 troops attacked the Confederates, who numbered around 22,000 troops under the command of Beauregard • Immediately, the Confederate lines faltered, and victory seemed within the Union army’s grasp by lunch time. • Union soldiers began collecting souvenirs from the battlefield, but one section of the Confederate line refused to break… and this rallied the Confederates.
Aftermath • The Union was embarrassed by the defeat, while the Confederates were jubilant • People began to openly question the abilities of Lincoln and his generals • People in Washington were shocked when the remnants of McDowell’s army staggered into the city dirty, exhausted and demoralized. • It proved that the war would not be short to those that thought the Confederates had no hope at victory • Lincoln and his staff realized that someone had to replace McDowell, so he chose a 34 year old successor in George McClellan • McClellan was known as ‘Young Napoleon’ because of his ego, but he was a great instructor for the army
Lincoln’s Issues… • Bull Run marked the beginning of a long stretch of struggles for the Union side • For eight months, McClellan trained the army without using it to crush the rebels • Despite efforts to get him to move, McClellan wasted valuable time in allowing the Confederates to bolster their defenses • Once Lincoln waited over an hour for McClellan at his house, and was ignored when McClellan returned home • Also, the Treasury was almost bankrupt and the War department was in disarray because of the ineptitude of Simon Cameron • In short, the war could not be going as badly as it did
Lincoln’s Home Life • Lincoln was married to a woman named Mary Todd, and they had four boys, one of which had died before he took office • Lincoln adored his kids, especially the two youngest, Willie and Thomas, who were 11 and 8. • Thomas was known as Tad, and was a rambunctious little kid who loved playing around the White House • Willie had a great imagination, formed army regiments with his friends at school, and also goofed around the White House • In early 1862, Willie got a fever and despite good medical care, died. • Mary Lincoln went crazy from it, and even though it crushed him, Lincoln had to go back to working 18 hours a day… he was never the same, nor was his wife, who wore black for the remainder of his Presidency.
The Peninsula Campaign • After 8 months of sitting around, McClellan, Lincoln, and others decided the best way to defeat the confederacy was to cut it off from the rest of the world. • The Navy would blockade the entire coast, and steam up the Mississippi River • The Army would go down Chesapeake Bay to southern Virginia, which would make the main army closer to Richmond • The plan was solid, but McClellan’s inaction cost it valuable time that could have prevented a longer conflict
McClellan’s Issues • McClellan arrived in Virginia with over 120,000 troops, ready to strike… but a lack of efficient maps made it difficult to advance • The weather also didn’t help, and most roads were so muddy they could barely advance… • When he met a force of 10,000 Confederates, he dug in rather than attacked because the Confederate commander tricked him • He had his men march in a circle, which did what?
Things Get Worse for the Union • Despite victories at Shiloh, Fort Donelson, and the capture and occupation of New Orleans, the end was not in sight for the Union • McClellan and his huge army still sat at Yorktown, VA waiting to attack that really small Confederate force commanded by Macgruder • Finally after waiting a month to attack, he began an assault on the Confederates, but the next day the Confederates ran away to join the forces that surrounded Richmond • McClellan rejoiced at his ‘victory’ and of course bragged about it, even though he ‘won’ because the Confederates decided to cut their losses and go help their friends • McClellan reached the outskirts of Richmond, the troops could even hear the church bells from the city… but again he hesitated to attack • He outnumbered the Confederates, but still asked for 40,000 more men
A New Force Emerges • With McClellan approaching Richmond, and commanding general Joseph Johnston wounded, Davis turned to Robert E. Lee to lead the army • Lee had agreed to take command after serving as only an advisor to Davis, and McClellan was jubilant • McClellan thought Lee was a softee, and hesitant to fight… boy was he wrong (AGAIN!) • Lee was determined to drive out the invaders that attacked his home state, and to motivate his troops, he renamed his army the Army of Northern Virginia, after his home region • Lee was a genius that achieved amazing things despite being outnumbered, out supplied, and outgunned. • Soon he hatched his plan to drive McClellan nuts…
Men vs. Boys • Lee decided have some fun at McClellan’s expense • He split up his army in order to confuse him, and then attacked • McClellan didn’t know how to respond, and got beaten back, despite outnumbering Lee’s army • Little by little, Lee pushed McClellan back to where he started • McClellan decided to hunker down and stay where he was • Lincoln couldn’t believe that this happened, and temporarily replaced McClellan’s command
Pressure • Lincoln also faced increased pressure from Abolitionists to free the slaves… he hesitated • Lincoln thought of a plan to pay $400 for every freed slave, and then encourage them to return to Africa or Central America • He said his goal was to save the Union, and if that meant freeing all the slaves, he would do it, or if it meant not freeing any slave, he would also do it. • He knew that if he freed all the slaves, the border states would probably join the Confederacy, and some Union soldiers would drop their weapons and also join the Confederacy • Not only that, but the war wasn’t going well enough where he could gain support for such a move. • He was fighting to save his Presidency and the country.
The Road to Antietam • Lee had completely made life miserable for all his adversaries, including Lincoln • He also happened to be gaining a reputation as one of the greatest military minds in history, US or otherwise • He knew that if he wanted to strike a death blow to the North, he had to invade it and force it to terms • He thought that if he went into Maryland, the people would immediately join them, and help his army out with supplies and food • So he crossed the Potomac River into western Maryland in late August 1862 • Soon, he would eventually face McClellan again, this time at the bloodiest one day battle in US history
You thought McClellan screwed up before? • After 2nd Bull Run, Lincoln had no choice but to reinstate McClellan, and of course he was cocky as ever • He found out about Lee crossing into Maryland, and moved to stop his advance • Along the way, his advance scouts searched an abandoned Confederate camp, and found some paper wrapped around cigars • The paper was a copy of Lee’s battle plan, and the scouts immediately gave them to McClellan… • McClellan had the keys to ending the war, and somehow DIDN’T DO ANYTHING!!! • He waited a day before attacking the Confederates, which made a possible simple battle into an all out bloodbath…
Antietam • 16 hours after McClellan received his ‘gift’, his army encountered the Confederates near the town of Sharpsburg, MD • Had he attacked right away, he may have dealt a devastating blow to the Confederates, instead his men took up positions opposite the Confederate lines • Lincoln needed a victory in order to go ahead with his plans to free the slaves • Jefferson Davis needed a successful venture into the North to get the British and French to recognize the Confederacy as a nation • Everything was on the table for both sides… McClellan had about 60,000 men, and Lee had about 40,000 • If Lee won, he would march on into Pennsylvania, and if McClellan won he could end the fight
The Dunkers • The Battle of Antietam around 8 o’clock near a little church, known as the Dunker Church • Joseph Hooker commanded that part of the line for the Union, and he attacked the Confederates commanded by Stonewall Jackson and James Longstreet • Most of the fighting happened in a cornfield, and by the end of the first hour or so, most of the corn stalks had been sheered by bullets • Nothing happened, this ended in a bloody stalemate… but a hint of what was to come
The Sunken Road • The worst fighting during the battle happened along a little road that happened to have slight slopes on either side, known as the Sunken Road • The confederates held the road, and fired upon any Union soldier that came at them • But eventually the Union attacked the Confederates along the road, forcing the Confederates to take the lower ground • It was nasty, all the Union soldiers had to do was aim and shoot, and hundreds of Confederate soldiers fell • It was the first thing that went somewhat well for the Union during the day
Burnside’s Bridge… • In the middle of the lines was a bridge that crossed the Antietam Creek • On one side was 12,000 Union soldiers commanded by Ambrose Burnside (Sideburns)… on the other was only 400 Confederates… • Instead of crossing the creek, which wasn’t that deep, Burnside (who was good friends with McClellan) ordered his troops to only cross the bridge • It was a turkey shoot for the Confederates, who happened to be on higher ground overloooking the bridge • It was a disaster, and Burnside lost many men despite superior numbers • This was the climatic clash during the battle, and soon the fighting had ended
The End… • By the end of the day, the Union had 2,100 men killed, 14,000 casualties over all • The Confederates had lost about 10,000 men, about a quarter of Lee’s whole army • The 23,000 casualties marked the bloodiest day in American history • Lee thought McClellan would attack him the next day to finish him off, but again McClellan didn’t do anything • So technically the Union won the battle, but McClellan allowed Lee to fight another day, which kept the war going • Lincoln was able to get his Emancipation Proclamation, and the Confederacy’s hopes for foreign intervention were dashed
Chancellorsville • By May 1863, the Union once again reached a point where nothing seemed to go right • McClellan is replaced with Burnside, who was replaced with Hooker right after the defeat at Fredericksburg • Hooker was more aggressive than his predecessors, but he was just as cocky • Lee was outnumbered 2 to 1, and still did another daring split of his army • He met the Union army outside of a small town called Chancellorsville, and attacked them
Lee’s Cool Move • Lee did another daring maneuver to befuddle the Union army… send Stonewall Jackson around the Union flank and march through a dense forest • Hooker should have attacked Lee’s depleted forces, but instead he waited… and Jackson’s 28,000 men attacked them through the woods, and annihilated Hooker’s troops • Unfortunately, Stonewall Jackson was shot while checking the lines at night, by his own troops • Lee won his biggest victory, but it was also his costliest- he lost Stonewall Jackson as his
Problems aside from the War • During the war, both the Confederates and Union struggled to get volunteers – why? • The Confederacy passed a draft in 1862 to help with this – what is a draft? • Congress had passed a draft in 1863 • Most people thought that being drafted was worse than volunteering, so it worked to get more recruits • Some felt the drafts were unfair because they allowed you to pay a fee of $300 to get out of it, or you could hire a substitute – who would be able to do this? • Most poor people could not afford the fee, since it was at least half of their annual salary
NY Draft Riots • In 1863, after the Emancipation Proclamation, many immigrants feared two things: 1. that the freed slaves would compete for jobs 2. dying for a war that they didn’t really have a stake in • The next day, several thousand rioters massed all over the city and attacked draft offices and military offices • Soon the rioters attacked free blacks, including children in an orphanage, because they felt that blacks got preferential treatment from other whites • Most of the East Side of Manhattan was in chaos • Over the next two days millions of dollars worth of damage had been done, and between 25-100 people were killed (estimates) • Lincoln had to send in troops to restore order, and they remained there for several weeks