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The Civil War

The Civil War

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The Civil War

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Presentation Transcript

  1. The Civil War 1861 - 1865

  2. South had someinitial advantages • Easier to defend than attack • Shorter supply lines • Better knowledge of terrain • Emotional advantage – defending homes & families • Vast size – 750,000 square miles • Best troops initially, and consistently better cavalry • Advantages couldn’t hold up over time Gen. J.E.B. Stuart

  3. Northern advantages grew stronger over time • Over 2:1 population advantage • 90% of industrial production • Almost 3 times as much railroad track • Navy to blockade Southern coast

  4. Transportation & Slavery, 1860

  5. Union Armies’ Numerical Advantage

  6. Government & Finances • CSA gov’t weak by design • Same problems collecting taxes as old confederation • Tariff ineffective due to Northern blockade • Bonds at 8% interest not very attractive • Printed $1.5 billion, but not legal tender • Result: 9,000% inflation (12%/month) • Union gov’t better able to finance & manage war • Legal Tender Act (Feb. 1862) issued $447 million, legal tender • Internal Revenue Act (July 1862) created first income and inheritance taxes • 80% inflation (comparable to World Wars) • Lincoln took very active role as Commander in Chief

  7. Lincoln & the Generals

  8. The Early Years, 1861 – 1862: Stalemate in the East • Defeat in 1st Battle of Bull Run (July 21, 1861) showed North it would be long war • George McClellan took command of Army of the Potomac – organizational genius, but too cautious • Successful defense of Richmond in Battle of 7 Days (June 25-July 1, 1862) made Robert E. Lee commander of the Army of Northern Virginia • Lee’s invasion of Maryland stopped at Antietam (Sept. 17, 1862) - bloodiest single day of war • Burnside defeated at Fredericksburg (Dec. 13, 1862) George McClellan Robert E. Lee

  9. Map: Early Years in the East

  10. The Early Years: Victories in the West & at Sea • Ulysses S. Grant wins key victory at Shiloh (April 6-7, 1862) • By end of 1862, New Orleans, Memphis, & most of Miss. River valley taken • Blockade steadily tightened: 9 out of 10 ships got through in 1861, but only 1 in 2 by 1865 • North & South Carolina barrier islands secured by Feb. 1862 • Admiral David Farragut captured New Orleans April 25, 1862 U.S. Grant David Farragut

  11. Map: Early Years West

  12. The Decision to Free the Slaves • 1st Confiscation Act (Aug. 1861) allowed seizure of slaves used directly by rebel military & abolished slavery in territories & D.C. • Military often welcomed refugees as “contrabands,” & used them for labor or servants • 2nd Confiscation Act (July 1862) freed all slaves owned by rebels, but poorly written and unenforceable • Emancipation Proclamation (Sept. 22, 1862; Jan. 1, 1863) freed all slaves in rebel territories

  13. Pres. Lincoln & Cabinet Issuing the Emancipation Proclamation

  14. Fighting for Freedom • Militia Act (July 1862) allowed blacks to join army, but in segregated units with white officers • 179,000 African Americans served; 130,000 from slave states (100,000 escaped slaves) • Over 38,000 died (higher proportion than whites)

  15. The Later Years, 1863 – 1865 • July 4, 1863 = turning point • Vicksburg fell to Grant after 2-month siege • Lee retreated after 3-day Battle of Gettysburg

  16. Gettysburg

  17. Finishing up in the Deep South • Grant broke the siege of Chattanooga (Nov. 1863) • Made general in chief March 1864 • William T. Sherman took command of Army of the West • Captured Atlanta (Sept. 2, 1864) • March to the Sea (Nov. 15 - Dec. 22, 1864) cut 25-60 mile swath of devastation from Atlanta to Savannah • Total war: destroy enemy’s will & ability to continue to fight William T. Sherman

  18. Map: The Deep South, 1864-65

  19. Grant takes command of the Army of the Potomac, 1864-65 • Engaged Lee continuously to wear down rebels • Wilderness campaign (May - June 1864) was bloodbath • Settled down to siege of Petersburg (June 1864 - April 1865) in response to public outrage over casualties • Richmond fell April 2, 1865 • Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Courthouse, April 9, 1865 • Breckenridge & Johnston surrendered to Sherman April 18 at Durham Station, N.C.

  20. Map: The East, 1864-65

  21. Lee Surrenders to Grant April 9, 1865

  22. The Assassination • Lincoln assassinated April 14, 1865 (Good Friday) • Told Cabinet that morning about dream of being in a “singular, indescribable vessel . . . moving with great rapidity toward a dark and indefinite shore.” • Shot that night by actor John Wilkes Booth while watching play at Ford’s Theater with his wife • Part of larger conspiracy to assassinate top echelon of federal government • Secretary of State Seward severely wounded • Vice President Andrew Johnson spared because would-be killer got drunk instead

  23. The Conspirators Lewis Powell, George Atzerodt, Mary Surratt & David Herold John Wilkes Booth

  24. The Ford Theater