The CIVIL WAR Chapter 16
First Shots @ Fort Sumter • After the South left the Union, state officials tried to take over the federal forts inside of their borders. • Major Robert Anderson attempted to hold on to Fort Sumter—but his troops were low on supplies. • Lincoln was afraid supplying the fort might lead to war—but he feared that if he withdrew troops, he would be giving in to the rebels. • Lincoln decided to send supplies and Confederate leaders responded by attacking the fort on April 12,1861. • The Civil War had begun. • President Lincoln called Northerners to put down the Southern rebellion. • Many Northern men joined the army • States such as TN, KY, AK, VA, and NC did not want to fight against their neighbors and seceded from the Union.
STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES;STRATEGIES • CONFEDERACY ADVANTAGES- • Began the war with able generals including Robert E. Lee • Ready to fight hard to defend their homes and families • STRATEGY- • Didn’t want to conquer the North—just wanted to be independent • Hoped the North would tire of war and accept Southern independence • Used “King Cotton” to try and gain foreign support • UNION ADVANTAGES– • 24 states in the Union versus 11 in the Confederate States of America • More manpower and resources • Twice as many citizens as the South • 80% of the nation’s factories were in the North • President Lincoln was an able leader • STRATEGY- • Bring Southern states back to the Union • Anaconda Plan- squeeze the Southern economy by blockading the coastline to prevent the transportation of goods.
BATTLE OF BULL RUN • In the summer of 1861 Lincoln ordered an invasion of Virginia—He wanted to conquer Richmond. • Troops clashed near a river called Bull Run (this was the First Battle of Bull Run) • The Confederates won the battle—the rebel victory shocked the North • The North realized that it had underestimated its opponent—Lincoln began preparing for a long war.
Life in the army • A majority of the soldiers in the Civil War were between the ages of 18 and 30 • About half of those were from farms and had never left home—they viewed the war as an exciting adventure. • Most of the soldiers were born in America—other ethnic groups including immigrants, Native Americans and African-Americans fought as well. • African-Americans weren’t accepted on either side at first—eventually the North let them serve. • African-Americans saw the war as a way to end slavery • Union soldiers wore blue uniforms and Confederate soldiers wore gray and yellowish brown uniforms.
Hardships of Army Life • Soldiers endured terrible conditions on the battlefield and in caps • Hygiene was poor • They went weeks without bathing and their clothes were overrun with fleas and lice. • Diseases killed more soldiers during the war than battle wounds.
Changes in military technology • The Civil War brought many advance in military technology. • Rifle—gun with a grooved barrel that caused the bullet to spin through the air. • Minie ball- a bullet with a hollow base • Ironclad-warship covered with iron • 1st Confederate ironclad Merrimack fought the Union Monitor.
UNION VICTORIES IN THE WEST • The Union army won victories in the West under General Ulysses S. Grant. • He captured 2 Confederate river forts in TN (Fort Henry and Fort Donelson). • The seizure of Ft. Henry opened up a river highway to the heart of the South. • Now Union gunboats could travel as far as northern Alabama. • Soon after taking the forts, Union soldiers marched into TN’s capital, Nashville.
BATTLE OF SHILOH • Grant and his men followed the Confederates who retreated from the West. • The 2 sides met in April 1862 in what turned out to be the bloodiest battle that the Civil War had seen thus far—the Battle of Shiloh. • The North won—but at a terrible cost: • # of Union soldiers dead or wounded---more than 13,000 • # of Confederate soldiers dead or wounded---nearly 11,000 of 41,000 soldiers
FALL OF NEW ORLEANS • This was a setback for the confederacy in the spring of 1862 • A Union fleet captures New Orleans—the largest city in the South. • This allowed the Union to control most of the Mississippi River. • The North was now well on it’s way to cutting the Confederacy in two.
Lee claims victories in the East & invades the north • Union General George McClellan attempted to capture Richmond. • Confederate General Robert E. Lee attempted to turn McClellan’s army back by sending a cavalry (soldiers on hosreback) to spy on McClellan’s army. • Lee attacked his army—they fought back and forth in what became called the Seven Days’ Battles. • In the end, the Confederate troops forced the Union army to retreat to Washington. • After this victory, Lee decided to invade the Union. He had several reasons for this attack: • Hoped Lincoln would be forced to talk peace. • The invasion would give Virginia farmers a break during harvest season. • He hoped a successful invasion would convince Europe to side with the South because their textile industry was suffering due to lack of Southern cotton.
Bloody Antietam • After invading Maryland, Lee drew up his plans for his campaign in the North. • A Confederate officer accidentally left a copy of the plans---so the McClellan knew what Lee planned to do. • As a result he decided to attack Lee’s army • The 2 sides met at Antietam Creek in Maryland—it became the bloodiest day in American history. • 25,000 lay dead or wounded • Lee lost about 1/3 of his fighting force and withdrew to Virginia—McClellan saw this as a chance to finish off the wounded Southern army but he didn’t follow them. • He was later fired by Lincoln.