Research Task • Calvin.T and Royce.K 1
Causes of the War • Spain was once the World’s most powerful country in the Elizabethan era. By the 20th century it was a poor and corrupted country where corruption was a widespread manner. It had lost nearly all of its great extremes of wealth and poverty caused intense social tensions. The Spanish people were divided into two type of government. The Nationalist and the Republicans . Those who wanted a republic were anti-clerical and hoped to reform Spanish society and free Spain from its treachery. There were a number of areas where it was felt reform were needed such as agriculture, religion, the army and the church. 2
Key Players Involved Nationalist Flag • General Francisco Franco was the leader of the Nationalist. • Manuel Azana was the leader of the Republicans. Republican Flag 3
Who/Why Start the War • General Francisco Franco waged a war with the Republicans to stop their rebellion. • The Republicans wanted to free Spain and reform her. The majority of the Republican army was therefore normal civilians who were of rebelling. General Francisco Franco
Countries and Army • Nationalist – Spain Aided by Nazi Germany and Italy • Republicans – Spain Aided by Soviet Union, France, Mexico and International Brigades(consist of multiple country volunteers). 5
Major Events - Timeline • 1938 • April - Republican Spain was split in two by the Nationalists • May – Franco declared that the Republicans had to unconditionally surrender • July – Start of the collapse of the Republican army after the Battle of the Ebro. • October – International Brigade left Spain • 1937 • February - Battle of Jarama • March – Battle of Guadalajara; Italian troops defeated by Republican army with substantial International Brigade support • May - Juan Négrin replaces Largo Caballero as Republican prime minister • 1939 • January – Barcelona fell to Franco • March - Madrid surrendered to General Franco • April - Republicans surrendered unconditionally to Franco 1936 • July – Insurgents defeated in Madrid; Republican government seeks aid from France & Insurgents appeal for help to Germany and Italy & Franco takes control of insurgent armies & Hitler agrees to support General Franco • August - France closes its border with Spain • November - International Brigades arrive in Madrid & Germany and Italy recognize Nationalist government • December - Italian forces arrive in Spain to support Insurgents 6
Beginning and End • The Spanish Civil War started in 17 July 1936 and ended in 1 April 1939. Ju – 87 Stuka Dive Bomber 7
Technology The Germans provided the Nationalists, a unique unit organised with an emphasis on firepower: air and artillery. In 1936, the Germans, were at the forefront of experimentation in the theory of mechanised and combined arms tactics. German militarists seized the opportunity for the practical application of their new concepts of warfare. Identically, Russian communists gave assistance to the Republicans in the form of military advisers and materiel, including tanks and airplanes. Among the tactics that was presented there were a new era of fighters and fighter-bombers such as the Ju-87 Stuka dive-bomber, new tanks and motorised infantry carriers; and new artillery's.
General Public • Feeling of the general public at the time of the civil war was that the majority of the civilians wanted to revolt against the nationalists because of their actions towards certain problems. Translation for the poster: Comrade!work and fight for the revolution. 9
People of the war • There are two perspective of the Spanish people in the civil war. • The Republicans perspective are to oppose and destroy the Nationalists to gain back order in Spain. • The nationalists perspectives are to stop the rebellion from taking Spain. 10
War - Conclusion • The war concluded by the Republicans surrendering to General Francisco Franco of the Nationalists and Franco declares the end of the war by signing the treaty. Franco’s declaration of the end of the Spanish Civil War.
Bibliography • http://www.historyhome.co.uk/europe/spaincw.htm • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanish_Civil_War • http://history-world.org/spanish_civil_war.htm • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanish_Civil_War,_1938%E2%80%931939 • http://history.howstuffworks.com/european-history/spanish-civil-war.htm 12