Journal - Civil War In 1861, seven Southern states have seceded from the Union over the issue of states rights/slavery and economic issues. The Confederate States has been formed and an army has been raised. The Confederate army attacks Fort Sumter in SC and President Lincoln issues a call for volunteers to serve in the Union army.
Instructions: Answer in complete sentences and RESTATE the ? • Could Diplomacy help end the war? Why or why not? (Diplomacy means negotiating between sides or tactfully dealing with the issue) 2. What makes a civil war different from a foreign war? 3. How would normal/daily life be affected by a a civil war? 4. How might a civil war affect the U.S. economy?
Why was the Civil War fought? • Was it legal under the U.S. Constitution for a state to leave the union? • Whether states’ rights / slavery was consistent with the nation's founding principles? Answer: NO
State or Federal Property? Fort Sumter, Charleston, South Carolina p. 338-339
Fort Sumter * Southern fort still under union control- Confederates believe it belongs to S.C.* Lincoln & Davis faced with a choice- Lincoln did he want to start hostility would other southern states secede not treat Confederacy as legitimate - Davis did he want to provoke war* So Lincoln- used political strategy - send food to soldiers - up to Davis to make the 1st moveWhat did Jefferson Davis do ????
Fort Sumter – cont. *April 12, 1861 – Confederates opened fireon the fort for 34 hours * Anderson lowered the flag to surrender before anyone was killed.* The Immediate cause of the Civil war - Fort Sumter http://www.history.com/videos/us-inches-closer-to-war#us-inches-closer-to-war 3 min
Other states secede Lincoln called out troopsto stop south’s rebellion > other southern states left the union - NC, VA, TN and AR- VA apart of the confederacy the South felt confident.* May, 1861 the Confederacy capital est. in Richmond, VA.
Border States:* MD, KY, and WV were Border States MD - key location to Washington DC WV - formed new state remained in union KY – neutral until the Confederate invaded (sided w/ union)
Southern Confederate States. Note that Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware did not secede, though they were slave states. West Virginia formed early in the war when it was occupied by Union forces, but did not join the Union as a state Mason-Dixon Line…..
Who had the Advantage? • Resources are important for success in a war North v. South http://www.teachingamericanhistory.org/neh/interactives/civilwar/lesson1/
Confederacy: Union: • Better trained Generals • Pre training • Could ride horses • Knew the terrain • Motivated (defending home) • Lots of ammunition • More population/ man power • More factories • Greater food production • Extensive RR system • Greater resources • Lincolnas leader Strengths 4 min p. ??
Confederacy: Union: • Low population • limited soldiers • few natural resources • lacked central gov’t • Few industries • Low supplies • Poor civilian leadership • Not familiar w/ landscape • Lacked experienced leaders • Untrained volunteers • Unprepared for war Weaknesses
Factors that lead to Confederacy Defeat Political Factors…* States rights - desire for popular sovereignty - basis of secession - difficult for central government* Union strong political leader in Lincoln p. ??
Anaconda Plan Winifred Scott, Union General devised the plan
http://www.history.com/videos/the-battle-of-gettysburg#the-battle-of-gettysburghttp://www.history.com/videos/the-battle-of-gettysburg#the-battle-of-gettysburg Geographic Factors…* Anaconda Plan- Union geographic strategy 1. take Richmond2. block trade 3. cut South in 2 by taking MS river* Confederate defeat at Vicksburg - gave the Union control of the lower MS river* Defeat at Gettysburg- location PA (big Confederate loss) - big turning point in the war p. 358-360
Economic Factors…* Plantation system declined* Food shortage in the south- union occupied food growing areas - loss of slave labor in the fields* Union blocked southern ports - created a shortage of salt, sugar, coffee, nails * Shortage of supplies cause inflation* Union used railroad to quickly re-supply
Economic – continued * Sherman’s March - Total War is destroying everything in sight - marched through GA, SC, NC, VA - destroying everything in the major cities* North economy expanded - Industrial Revolution thriving p. 364
Sherman’s March www.animatedatlas.com
Journal – Emancipation Read the handout, Emancipation Proclamation issued by President Lincoln. Answer the following questions in COMPLETE sentences RESTATING the questions.
1. Who will be responsible for maintaining order when slaves are freed? 2. Whom did President Lincoln claim was in rebellion against the U.S.? 3. What did Lincoln enjoin the people to do? 4. What did Lincoln declare for free blacks? 5. How did the Emancipation have a moral effect? 6. How did it have a military effect?
Journal – Emancipation Proclamation The Emancipation Proclamation was an announcement made by Lincoln in which slaves in the states in rebellion were granted freedom. Read Proclaiming Emancipation on p. 347 Write a paragraph of 8 to 10 sentences about Lincoln’s original intent, his main objective , his emancipation strategy and how it changed the war.
Emancipation Proclamation:* Jan.1, 1863 issued by President LincolnWhat did the Emancipation Proclamation do? * Only freed slaves in the Confederate state not the union * It allowed blacks to enlist in the union army Why were slaves only freed in the South and not in the Border States (still union)? Military strategy aimed at the South - designed to cause chaos - freeing slaves weaken the South - seen as a military necessity
How could Lincoln do this? As Commander-in-Chief Lincoln had Executive War powers… could free the south (like taking property) BUT not the union states - WHY not in the union???? Because Constitution does not give the President this power What makes Emancipation Proclamation legal or a law? Passing of the 13th Amendment
How did the Emancipation change the course of the Civil War ? * gave the war a high moral purpose > fight for human rights After the Emancipation, What were freed blacks now allowed to do? > join the Union army What did the Confederacy now realize? > institution of slavery would end p. 348
African American in the Military:* Approx. 180,000 blacks served in 163 Union army units * free blacks and runaway slaves joined* African American soldiers – 10% of the Union army* Discrimination * in pay ($3.00 less a month) * clothing and supplies * Union limits their combat * segregated units1864 – Congress granted equal pay for black soldiers
African American – cont. *After the Emancipation blacks officially enlisted* Fort Wagner, SC * 54th Massachusetts * volunteered to lead the assault on Confederates* Approx. 1/3 rd black soldiers died in the civil war p. 352
Lee’s Surrender:* April 1865, heard Lee had been defeated by Grant * President Davis & gov’t leaders abandoned Richmond - set it a fire * April 9, 1865 a farmhouse near Appomattox Courthouse* Lee & Grant met to arrange the terms for the surrender of Confederacy.* 4 years the Civil War was finally over
Lincoln's Assassination:* Few days after the surrender * April 14th, Lincoln & wife were at Fords theater in Washington DC * John Wilkes Booth (26 yr. old Confederate sympathizer) - shot President Lincoln in the back of the head* 1st time a President of the U.S. had been assassinated
Effects:Immediate:1. destruction of life (620,000) & property2. Emancipation3. Preservation of Union4. States’ rights SHOULD be put to restIntermediate:1. Industrial growth stimulated in North2. Reconstruction of the south 3. Reconciliation - no longer sectionalismLong Term:1. Civil Rights2. Increased power of the federal gov’t(new amendments)
EOC Workbook • Pages 85 (1,2) 93 (1,2)
Link and Learn • Pages 9 (Anaconda Plan) 12 (Emancipating the slaves) 32 (Secession)
http://students.umf.maine.edu/~pendlecv/Civil%20War%20Webquest/Civil%20War%20Battle.jpghttp://students.umf.maine.edu/~pendlecv/Civil%20War%20Webquest/Civil%20War%20Battle.jpg www.google.com Sources