The Civil War Fire-eaters F. Matthews Southerners who were champions of southern nationalism and began to demand an end to the union
The Civil War Fire breathers
The Civil War December 20, 1860— South Carolina secedes from the Union By Feb. 1861, MS, FL, AL, GA , LA and TX also had seceded.
The Civil War No state has the right to secede from the Union; however the federal government has no authority to stop any state who tries to do so.
The Civil War April and May 1861, VA, AR, NC & TN seceded—11 Confederate states March 4, 1861— Abraham Lincoln inaugurated as 16th President
The Civil War The Crittenden Compromise Several amendments Guarantee permanent existence of slavery in slave states and D. C. Re-establish the Missouri Compromise line in all present and future territory of U. S. Republicans would not accept; no expansion of slavery.
The Civil War April 12, 1861—South Carolina militia under Brigadier General P. T. Beauregard shell Fort Sumter, outside Charleston, SC Begins the Civil War
The Civil War June 1861—Virginia’s western counties secede from Virginia. Jun. 20, 1863— becomes Union state of West Virginia Border states of Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, and Missouri stay in Union.
The Civil War I do not see how a barbarous community and a civilized community can constitute one state. Emerson These northern people hate us, annoy us, and would have us assassinated by our slaves. . . Mrs. Frank Matthews
The Civil War ComparisonsNorthSouth Manpower Factories Food Production
The Civil War ComparisonsNorthSouth Railroads Cotton Generals
The Civil War Homestead Act Any citizen or prospective citizen could claim 160 acres of public land & purchase it for a small fee after living on it for 5 years
The Civil War Morrill Land Grant Act Transferred substantial public land acreage to state governments, which, in turn, were to sell the land and use proceeds to finance public education
The Civil War Central Pacific eastward from Sacramento Union Pacific Westward from Omaha, NE
The Civil War Financing the war Levying taxes Borrowing Issuing paper money— uniform system of banknotes
The Civil War Assembled cabinet representing all factions of Republican Party Boldly used war powers of the presidency Sent troops into battle without Congressional declaration of war (Domestic insurrection) Military arrested civilians Suspended right of habeas corpus
The Civil War Election of 1864 A. Lincoln A. Johnson G. McClellan G. Pendleton Republican Democratic
The Civil War Election of 1864
The Civil War The Politics of Emancipation T. Stevens C. Sumner B. Wade Radicals Use the war to abolish slavery, Immediately and completely
The Civil War The Politics of Emancipation Conservatives—slower, more gradual, less disruptive process for ending slavery Lincoln—cautious; only issued an executive order (The Emancipation Proclamation) after Battle of Antietam (Sep 1862), freeing, forever, slaves in all areas of the Confederacy except those already under Union control. Proclamation did not apply to border states
The Civil War African-Americans in the Civil War R. G. Shaw
The Civil War Dorthea Dix Stanton & Clara Barton Anthony
The Civil War Davis was a failure. A. Brinkley Jefferson Davis
The Civil War Monumental and ultimately impossible task: Southern society not used to heavy taxes Small, unstable banking system Most wealth invested in slaves & land $1 million of specie only Income tax never provided much revenue Inflation: prices rose 9000%; 80% in North
The Civil War Conscription in South End 1862: 500,000 ; after 1862, fewer people through conscription Draft 17-50; 100,000 desertions 1864-65
The Civil War Devastating effect on southern economy Markets in North cut off Export more difficult Loss of non-slave work force Destroyed land—most battles fought on southern soil Already inadequate rail system destroyed Massive shortages of everything
The Civil War Assess me as Commander-in-Chief. Numbers and resources Took advantage of material advantages Realized proper objective Destroy Confederate armies—not occupation of Southern territory
The Civil War Scott McClellan Halleck
The Civil War Northern strategy Anaconda Plan Winfield Scott Blockade southern ports Seize Mississippi River Attack to seize Richmond
The Civil War Four Theaters of Operations East—east of Appalachian Mountains West—between Mississippi River and Appalachian Mts Far West— West of the Mississippi River The Sea
The Civil War Southern strategy Defensive in nature defend against Northern attacks Robert E. Lee Jefferson Davis
The Civil War July 1861—The Union navy began a blockade of the Southern coast. South responds with small, fast blockade runners.
The Civil War March 9, 1862—first battle of ironclad ships. USS Monitorvs.CSS Virginia Battled to a draw. Both were later sunk in storms
The Civil War Great Britain and France initially sympathetic to Southern cause Cotton imports U. S.: economic rival; eager to weaken Some admired supposedly aristocratic social order of South England reluctant to act: Powerful local support for Union Antislavery movement
The Civil War Why did no European nations aid the Confederacy? Antislavery movements English manufacturers: surplus of raw cotton and finished goods Later, imported cotton from Egypt and India English did not clamor to have blockade broken
The Civil War The Trent Affair Slidell Mason Wilkes Confederate diplomats Slidell and Mason boarded HMS Trent in Havana USS San Jacinto (Wilkes) stopped on high seas and arrested Mason and Slidell British: demanded release, reparations, apology
The Civil War The war in the far west Vicious fighting in Kansas and Missouri Quantrill organized a band of mostly teenage guerrilla fighters; murderous—killed almost all in their path Jayhawkers: Union sympathizers from Kansas; moved across western MO exacting reprisals for actions of Quantrill and other Confederate guerillas
The Civil War First major battle: First Manassas or Bull Run McDowell Beauregard
First Manassas or Bull Run The Civil War Northerners from Washington— picnic atmosphere McDowell initially successful Brigade under Southern General Thomas J. Jackson holds “like a stone wall.” Southern reinforcements arrive; McDowell routed. No Reb pursuit.
The Civil War Lincoln replaced McDowell with General George B. McClellan McClellan began lengthy training of his soldiers.
The Civil War Battle of Shiloh—April 6-7, 1862 Western Theater Demonstrated the slaughter the war would become.
The Civil War The Battle of Shiloh U. S. Grant vs. A. J. Johnston Grant had first taken Forts Henry and Donelson
The Civil War The Battle of Shiloh Johnston attacked Grant was surprised Southwest Tennessee Late, 6 Apr. Grant and General George Thomas rallied Union forces and held off Confederates.
The Civil War The Battle of Shiloh Johnston killed first day Night of Day 1, Northern reinforcements, under General Lew Wallace, arrived. North attacked back the next day Battle ended as a draw—but the Confederates did not attain goal Casualties: 13,000 Union; 11,000 Confederate
The Civil War April 1862—Union Admiral David Farragut takes New Orleans 40 ships. Union controls lower Mississippi River by June.
The Civil War Meanwhile in the east: McClellan fails to take Richmond Too slow; too cautious Defeated by Army of N. VA: Robt. E. Lee
The Civil War Meanwhile in the east: Stonewall Jackson routes the Union Army in the Shenandoah Valley Union troops rush to defend Washington.
The Civil War Meanwhile in the east: September 1862—energized by Lee’s and Jackson’s victories in the east,J. Davis orders Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia to invade the north. Lee crosses the Potomac River From Virginia into Maryland
The Civil War McClellan, based on Lee’s battle plan found in a roll of cigars. . . meets Lee’s army near Sharpsburg Battle of Antietam—Sep. 17 Single bloodiest day in American history: 26,000 casualties