Philippines • Spring 1942 • Japanese control Philippines in March when Douglas MacArthur ordered by FDR off island • Promised that “I shall return” • Significance • US stumble out of gates in Pacific • Many US soldiers and personnel left behind
Coral Sea • May 1942 • Japanese and US clash in air between Asian and Australia • Significant because-one showed the different types of battle that we will see in Pacific (air and naval will rule). Two- it shows the world Japan can be stopped and Australia is no longer threatened.
Battle of Midway • Summer of 1942 • Why fought?-Midway island (NW of Hawaii). US cracks code and is aware of attack • Scout planes find Japanese on June 3 • Japanese will lose 4 aircraft carriers and over 250 planes in battle • Turning point of Pacific • “Avenged Pearl Harbor” as one Japanese pilot said
Iwo Jima • Most protected spot in Asia • Over 20,700 troops (all would die but roughly 200) • Marines lose 6,000-highest of pacific thus far • Fought as a stepping stone to Japan-only Okinawa left in island hopping campaign • Produced ‘the photo’
Battle of Okinawa • April 1945 • US invasion-dealt with kamikaze attacks and unbelievable fighting style of never surrender • 110,000 die for Japan while ‘only’ 7,000 for US • Scary preview at what fighting in Japan might be like-is there another way to end the war
Fighting style • Japanese fought w/ honor and a cultural belief in the military • Kamikaze attacks-purposely using planes strapped with bombs to hurl into ships, etc to cause maximum damage • Name comes from term “divine wind” after the story of a typhoon that saved Japan from a Mongol invasion in the 1200’s.
Atomic Bomb • Manhattan Project • Lead by Oppenheimer • First tested in July of 1945 in New Mexico • Flash was visible for 180 miles • Harry S Truman faces his first tough decision • Drop the bomb and end countless numbers of lives • OR don’t drop it and lose American lives • He would ask Japan to surrender at once, or else
When they don’t surrender, the first Atom bomb is dropped on August 6, 1945 on Hiroshima, Japan • After hesitating to surrender, Nagasaki was hit w/ the second • Both areas were military areas and hence their selection for the drop • Hirohito was horrified by the damage and eventually calls for peace by surrendering to the US on Sept. 2