The Pacific Theater
Effects on Japan Japan Japan was anticipating to gain major territories for their war efforts. They were extremely left dissatisfied with the Treaty in the end. • Thought they should get territoryespecially in Manchuria, but only a fraction • Wanted control of territory in China, • of the land they felt they deserved was given Trentino Region Dalmatian Islands Several regions Italy received Micronesian Islands • Requested for racial equality to be included in the Treaty and was denied this, mocking Japanese nationalism Mariana Islands Marshall Islands Carolines Several colonies Japan received
Japanese Goals of the 1930’s • Revive economy hit by Depression • Lead economic modernization in Asia - hoping to one day rival Europe and the United States • Free Asia from western colonial influences • Set up “East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere” • Dominate Asia economically and militarily • Asia for the Asiatics
The Japanese army rapidly advanced through China, Indo-China, Malaya, and Indonesia. - Some Asian people welcome them as liberators from western Imperialists - Soon they were generally feared as new imperialists, not as Asian liberators They treated non-Japanese peoples with ruthlessness, cruelty and severity.
The Japanese Empire. • Japan had a severe lack of natural resources. • Nearby Manchuria had plenty of coal, plus industries and ports. • China had already been carved up by the Western powers. Why shouldn’t Japan do the same? • 1910 Japan moved into Korea.
Hideki Tojo During the Great Depression, nations could not afford to buy Japanese goods and many factories closed. Some Japanese blamed the democracy movement for the economic problems and thought that a return to military rule would be the solution to Japan’s problems. Preached service to the state and to honor Emperor Hirohito as a god! Invaded Manchuria and China Used censorship and propaganda - schools, newspapers, government Secret police Unhappiness over loss of traditions Loss of foreign markets due to Great Depression Unemployment, poverty among peasants Government was seen as weak,corrupt, and inefficient Military took over government and ended democracy Glorified war to build an over sea empire Stressed nationalism, shintoism, and anti-western feelings
Soldiers. Soldiers, highly skilled in attack, defense, and jungle warfare. Highly motivated to defend their Emperor and their land to the death.
23 Japan’s Plan- 1940 • In July 1940 the Japanese government created a plan for a “new order in Greater East Asia.” Japan moved to establish the “Greater East Asia Co prosperity Sphere,” an appeal to Asians who wanted to rid their lands of European rule. “Dear France, May we please build airfields and station troops in Indochina? Love, Japan” NO SCRAP METAL TO JAPAN! Let’s get them out of our land! • Tripartite Pact • Every nation to “receive the space to which is entitled”.
US response to Japan Japan! Stop attacking China! In response to Japanese expansion into Southern Indochina, Franklin D. Roosevelt: Placed an oil embargo on the Japanese Froze all Japanese assets Make us! The USA will no longer supply you with oil and other supplies. Gaaaahhhhh…
Who was Gen-Yamamoto? What did he convince the Japanese leaders he could do? I was a Naval Marshal General and the commander-in-chief of the Combined Fleet during World War II With a grand plan I led the surprise attack against the United States, pulling the great nation into an even greater war.
Isoroku Yamamoto I hate America If we attack America’s base then we have a better chance of taking the Pacific They may attack once regrouped
Why did the Japanese attack? • Because they thought war was inevitable and that a surprise attack on such an important naval base would give them control of the pacific • The Japanese were expecting their results of the attack cripple the U. S. Pacific Fleet for a period of up to eighteen months, preventing aggressive action against imperial forces • The U.S. prohibited exports of steel, scrap iron and fuel to Japan because of the takeover of northern Indochina.
Pearl Harbor “The attacking planes came in two waves; the first hit its target at 7:53 AM, the second at 8:55. By 9:55 it was all over.”
2,335 soldiers died or were trapped below decks in the ships that were sunk. 68 civilians were killed because of the bombing and 1,178 people were wounded. • The last part of the decoded Japanese message stated that U.S. relations were to be severed. • Pearl Harbor was not in the state of high alert when the attack started, Anti-Aircraft guns were left unmanned. Interesting Facts
The Attack • The attack consisted of two aerial attack waves totaling 353 aircraft, launched from 6 Japanese aircraft carriers. • The attack sank 4 U.S. Navy battleships and damaged 4 more. The Japanese also sank or damaged 3 cruisers, 3 destroyers, and one minelayer, destroyed 188 aircraft, and caused personnel losses of 2,402 killed and 1,282 wounded.
The success of Pearl Harbor Unfortunately, the Japanese succeeded in attacking Pearl Harbor. • The two waves of attacking planes achieved their mission in less than two hours. • Left in the aftermath was 2.403 dead, 188 destroyed planes and 8 damaged battleships. • Three hours later they won in destroying American facilities in the Philippines.
There is a conspiracy theory that FDR knew about this attack but did nothing, because he wanted America to get fired up and go fight in the war.
The Myth: The Myth: Did the U.S. government know the attack was going to happen? Did the U.S. government know the attack was going to happen? The theory states that President Roosevelt (FDR) provoked the attack, knew about it in advance and covered up his failure to warn the Hawaiian commanders. The American Intelligence knew an Attack on Pearl harbor was likely, but never thought that the Japanese could sail their carriers over 2, 000 miles without them being detected. No one knows for sure whether or not the government knew. Everyone has their own beliefs. The theory states that President Roosevelt (FDR) provoked the attack, knew about it in advance and covered up his failure to warn the Hawaiian commanders. The American Intelligence knew an Attack on Pearl harbor was likely, but never thought that the Japanese could sail their carriers over 2, 000 miles without them being detected. No one knows for sure whether or not the government knew. Everyone has their own beliefs.
Pearl Harbor - Dec. 7, 1941 A date which will live in infamy!
After the Attack • Though the attack had large-scale destruction on US vessels and aircraft, it did not affect Pearl Harbor's fuel storage, maintenance, and intelligence facilities. • The loss of the battleships left the U.S. Navy with no choice but to rely on its aircraft and submarines. • Five of the eight battleships were repaired and returned to service. • United States joined World War II.
"In all the war I never received a more direct shock. As I turned and twisted in bed the full horror of the news sank in upon me. There were no British or American capital ships in the Indian Ocean or the Pacific except the American survivors of Pearl Harbor who were hastening back to California. Over this vast expanse of waters Japan was supreme and we everywhere were weak and naked". - British Prime Minister Winston Churchill