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The Pacific Theater

The Pacific Theater

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The Pacific Theater

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  1. The Pacific Theater Credit to Matthew Baumann for much of the content of this powerpoint

  2. Japan begins to industrialize after the Meiji Restoration (1868) • Emperor elevated to new status • Created a Constitutional Monarchy • Supported by Shintoism • Japan Develops Army based on Germany. • Develops Navy based on England’s

  3. Japan Imperialism • 1894—Took Taiwan away from China • In 1910, occupied Korea • From 1894 on had resources from Manchuria

  4. Japan Hit Hard by Great Depression • In the 1930s • Worker’s Real Income was down and unemployment was up • Depression blamed on the weakness of the parliamentary government. • When Germany became strong under Hitler, some Japanese started looking to Germany as their model • Gradually began to demand an “Asia for the Asians”

  5. Post-World War I Japan • Militarism = the belief or desire of a government or people that a country should maintain a strong military capability and be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or promote national interests. • After World War I, Japan saw itself as the dominant power in the East • It began to pursue policies that would increase their territory and their influence in Asia • Ultimately, these policies would lead to the outbreak of war in the Pacific

  6. Motives for Japanese Expansion • Economics • Japan was in desperate need of natural resources to fuel its industry and military • Extreme Nationalism • Many Japanese citizens believed that Japan was the most superior country in Asia and therefore had the right to rule everyone else • Acts by Western Powers • Several actions by Western powers were motivated by the belief that Japan was not equal; these insults fueled imperialistic desires in Japan

  7. The Invasion of China Begins • In 1931 Japan invaded the northern area of China, Manchuria, which had huge deposits of natural resources like coal • The League of Nations did nothing

  8. 1937: The Invasion Spreads • After a few years, Japanese forces moved south and invaded China • During this invasion they took control of the Chinese capital, Nanking (also written as Nanjing—same place)

  9. The Rape of Nanking, 1937 • During the invasion, the people of Nanking were treated horribly by the Japanese soldiers

  10. The Japanese Government • Though Japan had an emperor, the military had taken control of the government by this time • Emperor Hirohito could not stand up to the powerful generals, but he was worshipped by the people, who often fought in his name • The military leader of Japan was General Hideki Tojo

  11. The need for more resources • Next, Japan began to look towards Southeast Asia for more resources • Their quest for territory and resources in this part of Asia would lead the US to become involved with stopping their expansion • But more on that later….

  12. In 1939, Japan’s Problems in Asia, not European • How to deal with China • Very threatened by Soviet Union • Didn’t want to antagonize the United States • Coveted Vietnam, Dutch East Indies and other areas in Southeast Asia • Believed that Southeast Asia should be ruled by Asians, mainly them • They lose the Battle of Nomonhan to Soviet Union.

  13. In 1940 • Tripartite Pact • Hitler starts thinking about invading Soviet Union

  14. In 1941 • April 13, 1941—Japan concludes treaty of neutrality with USSR. • June 22, 1941—Hitler invades Soviet Union • June 23, 1941—German controlled France agrees to let Japan take over Vietnam. • US places total embargo after Vietnam and Dutch East Indies occupied by Japan.

  15. Pearl Harbor • December 7, 1941—Japan bombs Pearl Harbor • Admiral Yamamoto terrified to learn that Air Craft Carriers not hurt • Hitler declares war on US

  16. Bataan Death March • Japan attacked the Philippines in December 1941. The Philippines fell in May 1942. • The Japanese troops forced the sick, malnourished American soldiers to march 55 miles. After a trip on a railway, they had to march another 8 miles. 7,000 American and Filipino troops died during the grueling journey.

  17. Doolittle Raid • America did a bombing raid in April of 1942 by launching bombers from aircraft carriers. • Bombed Tokyo • Japan was embarrassed, and resolved to destroy aircraft carriers, and began to plan to attack Midway

  18. Battle of Coral Sea • May 1942: Japan moves to take Port Moresby in New Guinea. • May 7-8: U.S. and Japanese aircraft carriers engage in battle. • U.S. and Japanese planes attacked ships. Ships did not directly battle • Battle was a draw, but since Japan withdrew it was a strategic victory for the U.S.

  19. Battle of Midway • 1942: If Japan took Midway, U.S. would be forced back to California coast. • U.S. knew of attack. (They broke the code) • U.S. navy was concentrated at Midway. • June 4, 1942: Japan attacked Midway. • U.S. dealt Japan a decisive defeat. 4 Japanese aircraft carriers were sunk. America only lost one • After Midway, Japan did not threaten Pacific domination and was on the defensive.