The Civil War Chapter 21 Pgs. 290 - 309
21.1 Introduction • The states that separated from the Union were renamed the Confederate States of America • North –Union Army • South- Confederate Army
21.2 Preparing for the War • Abraham Lincoln- president of the United States • Jefferson Davis- president of the Confederacy
North • Strengths: • Bigger Population • More Manufacturing (making of guns) • Railroad (transportation to the war) • Banks and Money • Weakness: • No military leadership
South • Strengths: • Defensive War (North had to travel and fight in the South) “Home Field Advantage” • Military Leadership (War Generals from previous wars moved South after war was over) • Weaknesses: • Lack of Money • Few Factories for Manufacturing • No ways to transport war related items
Abraham Lincoln vs. Jefferson Davis • North’s greatest advantage was Abraham Lincoln • Lincoln grew up uneducated, but learned through reading and became a lawyer and great leader • Davis grew up on a plantation and went to military school and then joined the army
Questions • What were the states renamed that separated from the Union? • Who was the president of the US at the time of the Civil War? • Who was president of the Confederacy at the time of the Civil War? • What were the strengths and weaknesses of the Union Army? • What were the strengths and weaknesses of the Confederate Army? • What was the North’s greatest advantage in the war?
21.3 Bull Run: A Great Awakening • Anaconda Plan: Lincoln decided to attack the South from the outside and crush it in the middle with a 3 part plan: • Surround the South and cut off ports • Divide the Confederate States into sections • Capture Richmond, Virginia, the capital of the Southern States
21.3 Continued… Rose Greenhow’s Dilemma: • She worked in Washington and sent messages to the South of what the North was planning on doing in the war The Battle of Bull Run: • South knew that the North was coming to Richmond so they hid out in the city of Manassas • When the North approached a creek named Bull Run the South was ready for battle • South surprisingly won the battle and some respect from the North
Woman Support the War: • Woman began to work jobs their husbands worked • Woman were involved in the war: Messengers, guides, scouts, smugglers, soldiers and spies • Dorothea Dix created a group of female nurses to help in the war • Clara Barton created the Red Cross (helped wounded soldiers on the battle field)
21.4 Antietam: A Bloody Affair The Union Blockade: • North blocked all ports in the South • South asked Britain for help and refused Dividing the Confederacy: • Admiral Farragut took 46 ships down the Mississippi River to New Orleans and took over the area • General Ulysses S. Grant won battles in Kentucky and Tennessee Attacking Richmond: • General McClellan (Head of the Union Army) went to take over Richmond and again the South won the battle
21.4 Continued… The Battle of Antietam: • General Robert E. Lee took confederate troops into the North to fight in Maryland • McClellan pushed Lee back to the South • The North won the battle, but both sides lost many men in the battle The New Realities of War: • New technology and better weapons made it easier to kill your enemies • Medical Care was not good • More people died of their wounds because of unclean conditions
21.5 Gettysburg: A Turning Point The Emancipation Proclamation: • Lincoln created the Emancipation Proclamation: Ended Slavery in America The Draft: • North and South ran out of volunteers so they forced men to join their army The Battle of Gettysburg: • Armies met in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania • The Armies fought back and forth, the Union pushed the Confederate Armies back to the south (last time the Confederate Armies moved North)
21.5 Continued… Opposition on the Union Home Front: • In the North people started protesting the war and feeling sorry for the South • Others started killing the Union soldiers Draft Riots: • Individuals were upset about the draft so they started killing African Americans because they believed they were the reason for the war Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address: • Lincoln spoke in a cemetery and convinced the Union to stay with the war and continue the fight
Questions • What was the plan Lincoln used to try and beat the South? • Who worked in Washington as a spy for the South? • What famous battle did the South win because of their inside info? • Who created the Red Cross? • What made winning the war easier? • How did most people die in the war? • What was the Emancipation Proclamation? • What were the draft riots? • What happened during the Gettysburg Address?
21.6 Vicksburg: A Besieged City The Merrimac and the Monitor: • The North and South both created iron-clad ships and they moved forward in war improvements Control of the Mississippi: • The Union controlled both ends of the Mississippi and the South could not use it to move supplies and troops
21.6 Continued… Vicksburg: • Grant brought an army to Vicksburg so the Union could control all of the Mississippi • City was hard to fight because was on hillsides • People in Vicksburg dug tunnels and lived underground • Ate horses, mules, bread of corn, and peas • Were starving so surrendered • The Union had split the South in ½ Problems on the Confederate Home Front: • The South was starving because there was no money or food • Many Confederate soldiers left the army to help their starving families
21.7 Fort Wagner: African Americans Join the War • The Union enlisted African Americans in the Army and Navy The Massachusetts 54th Regiment: • The First African American troops • They were first paid ½ the pay of white soldiers • Protested and received equal pay African Americans at War: • They fought with bravery and gained respect from whites • They fought to end slavery
21.8 Appomattox Grant Takes Charge: • McClellan was not doing his job so Lincoln got rid of him and placed Grant in charge On to Richmond: • Both sides fought and the Union army lost almost as many men as the entire Confederate Army • The North received more men and the South could not Total War: • Grant believed that when you fight you kill and destroy everything • While Grant was fighting he sent Sheridan to take more troops to Georgia to destroy all of the Confederate Armies resources
21.8 Continued… The Reelection of Lincoln: • Lincoln was running against McClellan for president • McClellan wanted to end war and Lincoln wanted to continue it • McClellan would have won but when Sheridan took over Georgia, it brought hope to the North and Lincoln won the presidency Sherman’s March through Georgia: • Sherman’s troops destroyed everything in Georgia that was of value to Southerners • Houses, fields, animals
21.8 Continued… The End at Appomattox: • The Union and Confederate Armies fought for 9 months outside of Richmond and the North finally broke through to the capital • Grants troops surrounded Lee’s Army A Noble Surrender: • General Lee surrendered to Grant and these were the terms: • Soldiers were allowed to go back home unharmed • They could keep their mules and horses for plowing • They could keep their guns and swords • They were to be given food to eat
The Cost of War: • Billions of dollars • Almost every family in the U.S lost a love one • 620,000 dead soldiers (both sides) • Thousands of others injured • The South was devastated
Questions • Why was the battle at Vicksburg difficult to fight in? • What problems were Confederates facing on the home front? • Who were the Massachusetts 54th Regiment? • Why did African Americans volunteer to fight in the war? • Who replaced McClellan when he was not doing his job? • Why did Lincoln win the reelection? • What terms were agreed upon when General Lee surrendered to Grant? • What was the final cost of the Civil War?