Unit Six Building an Empire
Chapter 19 • Foreign Policy: Setting a Course for Expansion
Foreign Policy • Foreign Policy • Set of guidelines and practices that a nation follows in its relations with other nations • Diplomacy • Art of conducting negotiations with other nations • Commodore Perry • Japan
Washington’s Farewell Address • Neutrality • The policy of not taking sides in wars between other nations • Unilateralism • A policy of not seeking military or political alliances with foreign powers
Realism vs. Idealism • Realism • International relations should be guided by pragmatic self-interest –practical goals such as national defense and access resources • Idealism • The belief that moral values should influence relations Staying home sick? Idealist or Realist
Idealistic or Realistic? • Cold War • National Parks • Revolutionary War • War in Iraq • Favors?
War of 1812 • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c7Hh8W69cos&feature=related • Treaty of Ghent • Peace between U.S. and U.K. • “Not one inch of territory ceded or lost”
Monroe Doctrine • Monroe Doctrine • Declaration warning European powers against future colonization in the Western Hemisphere or interference in Latin American republics. • Non-Colonization • Non-Interference
Texas Revolution • Texas owned by Mexico • Americans moved in • Abolished Slavery • Upset Americans in Mexico • Texas Revolution • Alamo
Mexican-American War • James K. Polk • Disagreed with Mexico on Texas border • Provokes a War • Sends troops to the Rio Grande • Mexican-American War • Treaty of Guadalupe • U.S. received = Texas border, Texas west to California • Mexico received = $15 Million
Beginnings of Imperialism • Imperialism • Empire building • Protectorate • Nation protected and controlled by a stronger nation • Realist or Idealist?
How Should We Expand? Henry Cabot Lodge Carl Schurz Josiah Strong Alfred T. Mahan
Chapter 20 • The Spanish-American War
Hearst vs. Pulitzer • New York Journal • New York World • Yellow Journalism • Exaggerated style of reporting with sensational news stories • Mass Media • Methods of communicating to a mass audience.
Yellow Journalism http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h0mjkLPvrQM
Cuban Struggles • Want Independence from Spain • Idealism • Americans empathize with Cubans • Realism • Americans want to protect business interests
Mass Media Hysteria! • Cuban Struggle • Hearst and Pulitzer exaggerated Spanish rule • de Lome Letter • Spanish ambassador has letter stolen • Letter criticizes President McKinley • Letter published in the New York Journal • USS Maine • U.S. ship explodes in Havana harbor • Hearst and Pulitzer blame the Spanish
Spanish – American War, 1898 • Investigation on USS Maine • 1898, Mine responsible • 1976, accidental explosion • US declares war on Spain • Media to blame?
Spanish – American War, 1898 • Did we need to go to war? • de Lome Letter • USS Maine explosion
Spanish – American War, 1898 • Philippines • American soldiers and Filipino rebels • Joined forces, defeat Spanish in Philippines • Cuba • Rough Riders • U.S. Volunteer Cavalry handpicked by Theodore Roosevelt San Juan Hill
The Teller Amendment • Resolution • A formal statement about a course of action • Cuba • Promised to help overthrow Spanish rile • Military force and aid • Promised to liberate Cuba after war • After the war . . . . . . . They found out we were just kidding about that last part.
Treaty of Paris • Cuba granted Independence • Puerto Rico and Guam ceded to U.S. • Philippines cede to U.S. for $20 Million • U.S. is now a colonial empire
Should we accept the Treaty? • Anti-Imperialist League • Organization against the establishment of U.S. colonies • Mark Twain • Supporters • Theodore Roosevelt and William McKinley
Platt Amendment • Allowed the U.S. to intervene in Cuban affairs • Allowed U.S. to buy and lease land for naval bases • U.S. business interests owned 60% of the Cuban economy
Chapter 21 • Acquiring and Managing Global Power
Roosevelt’s Foreign Policy • Big Stick Policy • Roosevelt Corollary Did it work?
Taft’s Foreign Policy • Dollar Diplomacy Did it work?
Wilson’s Foreign Policy • Moral Diplomacy • Self-determination Did it work?
Panama Canal • U.S. helps Panama overthrow Colombian Rule • Panama Canal • Improved international trade
Panama Canal • Locks • Gates that raise and lower water levels, allowing ships to travel the canal
U.S. and Mexico • Francisco Madero • Tried to overthrow government • Killed by his general Victoriano Huerta • American Businessmen • Wanted Wilson to recognize Huerta government • Wilson refused to recognize a “government of butchers” • Idealist or Realist
U.S. and Mexico • Wilson and Huerta • Almost go to war • Wilson sent troops to Veracruz • Aid revolution against Huerta • Outcry • Mexican and Americans
Puerto Rico • Military government • infrastructure • Civilian government • Puerto Ricans became frustrated with U.S. • Jones Act, 1917 • Puerto Rico becomes a U.S. territory • Idealist or Realist
Philippines • Emilio Aguinaldo • Leader of Filipino resistance • Philippines wants independence • U.S. denied them freedom • Try to start own government • U.S. doesn’t recognize it • Aguinaldo Rebels • War breaks out • 200,000 Filipinos die • US rebuild Philippines
Hawaii • American controlled Economy • Sugarcane and Pineapple • Queen Liliuokalani • 1891, new constitution • White planters weren’t happy • 1893, U.S. forces overthrow Liliuokalani • Debate raged in the U.S.
Made in China • Spheres of Influence • Areas where a single nation controlled trading rights
Open Door Policy, 1899 • All foreign nations are allowed to trade freely with China
The Boxer Rebellion • Group of Chinese who wanted to remove foreign influence from China • They led an insurrection • Rebellion • Crushed by foreign powers