Do Now Once a state had entered the United States, did it have the right to leave?
Preservation of the Union From the Southern view, the South had the right to secede because the United States had not protected Southern rights. (In this case, only the rights of the white population were being considered.) Lincoln took the position that states could not leave the Union. No minority could act to destroy the nation and its government.
Lincoln’s Aims and Actions From the beginning, of the secession crisis, Lincoln's goal was to preserve the Union. He took bold executive action to achieve this aim. He called out state militias, increased the size of the Navy, ordered a naval blockade of the South, and approved funds for military expenses while Congress was not in session. Congress later gave its approval of these actions.
Lincoln’s Aims and Actions Lincoln also ordered the arrest of Southern sympathizers in Maryland and Delaware to prevent secession of those states. Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus in areas not in rebellion. He later won congressional approval for this step. He also declared martial law, which led to the arrests of thousands for suspected disloyalty.
Constitutional Questions Lincoln's actions broadened the power of the executive. They also raised troubling questions: Were such actions constitutional? Did they fall within the scope of the President's war powers, or were they dictatorial?
Constitutional Questions Did the fact that some Northerners sympathized with the rebelling South justify the limiting of their civil rights? Did Lincoln set precedents for expanded executive action that later Presidents might use in more questionable circumstances?
Other Governmental Policies In order to help to finance the Civil War, a new federal banking system was created, establishing a national currency. The currency was backed by government bonds and issued by the new federal banks.
Other Governmental Policies In 1862, the Congress passed three major acts to facilitate economic growth after the war ended. The Homestead Act (1862) a law that offered 160 free acres of western land to settlers. The Morrill Land Grant Act gave public lands to states and territories to found agriculture, mechanical arts, and military science colleges.
Other Governmental Policies Congress also authorized the building of the transcontinental railroad, financed with public land grants and cash loans.
Northern Advantages More railroads More factories Better balance between farming and industry More money A functioning government, an army, and a navy Two thirds of the nation’s population
Military Strategy The Union relied on its superior resources and technology. Union ships blockaded southern ports (The Anaconda Plan), preventing the Confederacy from importing food and military supplies. The blockade would also ruin the southern economy. The blockade would shut down King Cotton, ruining the Southern economy
Winfield Scott commanding general of the U.S. Army
Confederate Government Had to persuade people to give up personal interests for the common good. Wanted to centralize economic decisions based on the war effort. Called for a draft, or required military service, of three years Authorized the army to seize male slaves for military labor. Failed to gain recognition, or official acceptance as an independent nation.
Confederate Government States’ Rights Advocates resisted sacrificing personal interests. Claimed that a draft violated states’ rights. Almost 25 percent of men eligible for the draft refused. Resented the borrowing of slaves for the army because it disrupted work on their plantations, even though they received a monthly fee.
Southern Advantages Leadership: Most of the nation’s military colleges were in the South; most officers sided with the Confederacy. Military tactics: Because the South was defending its borders, its army needed only to repel Northern advances rather than initiate military action. Morale: Many Southerners were eager to fight to preserve their way of life and their right to self- government.
Military Strategy The Confederate war strategy was to attack the Union army repeatedly, inflicting casualties and wearing it down until it lost the will to fight. The Confederacy hoped to gain aid and diplomatic recognition from Great Britain and France, two nations that relied on southern cotton. Neither strategy was successful.
Agenda 12/10 Do Now Assign HW-Due tomorrow Notes on the Civil War Civil War Quiz- Thursday after school in room 106-2:45-3:00 Test Next Monday 12/15 on Civil War
Union Military Strategies Union commanders wanted a military blockade of seceded states. They hoped to gain control of the Mississippi River. They planned to cut the Confederacy in two, along the Mississippi River. Confederate War Strategies Jefferson Davis hoped that Lincoln would let the Confederacy go in peace. The South planned for a war of attrition. Tactics and Technology Outdated muskets were replaced with more accurate rifles. Artillery improved with the invention of shells, devices that exploded in the air. Artillery often fired canisters, special shells filled with bullets. Preparing for War Military Strategies
Bull Run The first major battle of the Civil War ended in a victory for the Confederacy. It became known as the First Battle of Bull Run (Manassas, Virginia) because the following year a battle occurred at almost exactly the same site.
General Grant In 1863, General Ulysses S. Grant led the victorious Union forces at Vicksburg, Mississippi, giving the North control of the Mississippi and dividing the South.
The Battle of Antietam The Confederate forces invaded the North. The Union army learned of General Lee’s strategy. On September 17, 1862, the two armies met at Antietam Creek near Sharpsburg, Maryland. The Union forces had more than 75,000 troops, with nearly 25,000 in reserve. The Confederate forces numbered about 40,000.
The Battle of Antietam By the day’s end, the Union casualties numbered more than 12,000. The Confederate casualties were nearly 14,000, more than a third of the entire army. This was the worst single day of the war at the Battle of Antietam in Maryland, where the Southern commander General Robert E. Lee attempted to invade Maryland.
Emancipation of Proclamation In 1863, Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation freed all slaves in those areas still in rebellion against the Union. The Proclamation had largely a symbolic value. The Union could not enforce it, because it freed slaves only in areas under Confederate control.
Emancipation of Proclamation Although African Americans had fought for the Union since the start of the war, after the Proclamation, their numbers in the Union military swelled. In all, more than 185,000 enlisted.
Emancipation of Proclamation The Proclamation drew both criticism and praise. Some attacked it for freeing slaves only where the government could not enforce the decree, while permitting slavery where it could act. On the other hand, the Proclamation lessened the chances of European aid to the South.
Emancipation of Proclamation Europeans felt very strongly about ending slavery and the Emancipation Proclamation ended any chance that France and Great Britain would aid the Confederates. Most of all, it added a new humanitarian objective to the war.
African Americans Join the War Slaves captured by the Union army were contraband, property of one side seized by the other. If, as the Southerners claimed, slaves were property, then the Union could consider them contraband, take ownership, and give them their freedom. Congress authorized Lincoln to accept African Americans into the military after McClellan’s defeat in Virginia.
African Americans Join the War By 1865, nearly 180,000 African Americans had enlisted in the Union army. Many African Americans viewed the chance to fight against slavery as a milestone in their history.
Northern Economy Northern farms and factories produced almost all of the goods needed by the army and civilian populations. Women filled critical jobs in factories and on farms. Profiteers paid women lower wages than male workers and sold inferior products at inflated prices.
Southern Economy Many planters refused to grow food instead of cotton. Due to the Union blockade, cotton piled up in warehouses while food riots erupted in Southern cities. Even though production increased, the South was never able to provide all the goods its army needed. Labor shortages and a lack of goods contributed to inflation. Women filled many of the factory jobs.
The Civil War on the Home Front In the North, production in factories and on farms increased during the Civil War. Women and African Americans took more factory jobs to replace the white men who had gone to war. Women also ran the farms and raised money to help the wounded soldiers.
The Civil War on the Home Front On both sides, women served as nurses, even in field hospitals. However, medicine was seen as a male profession, and even Clara Barton, founder of the American Red Cross, met with resistance.
The Civil War on the Home Front The South lacked industrial support and a good transportation network. Furthermore, the Confederate government, led by Jefferson Davis, met opposition when calling for a military draft or attempting to collect food for the army.
The Civil War on the Home Front In the South, the Northern blockade of southern ports led to food shortages. Inflation soared. As in the North, women took over the work on the farms. On the plantations, they supervised the slaves. They also worked as government clerks and as teachers.
Battle UnionOfficer Confederate Officer Victor/ Why Fredericksburg Burnside Lee South/Burnside crossed right in front of Lee’s army; kept charging into gunfire. Chancellorsville Hooker Lee/Jackson South/Lee split his army and sent Jackson around to attack; surprised Hooker; Jackson died after the battle. Gettysburg Hooker Lee/Longstreet/ Pickett North/General Pickett charged the Union unsuccessfully. Confederates lost more than a third of their troops. Vicksburg Grant Pemberton North/Union army laid siege to Vicksburg. Confederate army surrendered. Major Battles of 1863
Battle of Gettysburg In 1863 General Robert E. Lee decided again to invade the North. Lee's forces clashed with the Union army at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. The Union army defeated Lee's troops after three days of fierce fighting. Each side lost more than 50,000 soldiers.
Battle of Gettysburg The Battle of Gettysburg was considered a turning point in the war. Northerners became rejuvenated due to the fact that they had finally broken through and defeated Lee's army.
Battle of Gettysburg Lee would continue to lead his men brilliantly in . the next two years of the war. But the Confederacy would never recover from the loss and never again hope to invade the North.
Vicksburg 30,000 Confederate troops defending Vicksburg laid down their arms and surrendered. Former slaves celebrated Independence Day for the first time. Four days later, the Mississippi River was in the hands of the Union army, effectively cutting the Confederacy in two.
Gettysburg Address In November 1863, Lincoln dedicated the Union military cemetery at Gettysburg, just a few months after the battle there. His short speech summarized the meaning of the Civil War.
Gettysburg Address He reminded people that the Civil War was being fought to preserve a country that upheld the principles of freedom, equality, and self-government. The Gettysburg address expresses grief at the terrible cost of war and the importance of preserving the Union.
The Confederacy Wears Down The losses at Gettysburg and Vicksburg caused Southern morale to drop. Many men had been lost in battle. The Confederate army was low on food, ammunition, and supplies. Soldiers began to desert. Some even joined the Union Army.
General Grant Lincoln made Ulysses S. Grant ,commander of all Union armies. Grant gave William Tecumseh Sherman command of the military division of the Mississippi. Both generals sought a total victory over the South. This meant conquering not only the South's army and government but also its civilian population.
Grant’s Tactics In 1864, Grant fought Lee's army in Virginia. Grant's basic tactic was to attack and then attack again. Even if his causalities ran twice as high as those of Lee, the North could afford it. The South could not.
Grant’s Tactics Grant threw his troops into battle after battle. During a six-week period, Grant lost nearly 60,000 men to Lee's 32,000. Democrats and Northern newspapers called Grant a butcher. However, Grant kept fighting. He had promised Lincoln, "whatever happens, there will be no turning back."
General Sherman Sherman's troops invaded Georgia. His forces marched across the state to the sea. They destroyed cities and farms as they went. They did the same in South Carolina. The South was quickly becoming a wasteland.
End of the War By March 1865, it was clear that the end of the Confederacy was near. President Davis fled Richmond. On April 9, 1965, Generals Lee and Grant met in a Virginia village called Appomattox Court House and arranged the Confederate surrender. The terms were generous. Lincoln did not want to impose harsh terms on the Confederates.
Agenda 12/12 Do Now: Gettysburg Address Finish Notes on the Civil War Review Sheet Give Back HW & Quizzes Test Next Monday 12/15 on Civil War
Human Cost The Civil War was the bloodiest war the United States has ever known. Some 600,000 Americans lost their lives as new military technologies and old diseases struck down soldiers and civilians. Families along the border between the Union and the Confederacy were particularly devastated, as family members fought on opposite sides.
The Civil War on the Home Front By the end of the Civil War, the South was devastated. The war left a legacy of bitterness and new problems. The dead on both sides included Lincoln himself, assassinated within days of the war's end.
Election of 1864 Republicans changed their party name to the Union Party. Dropped Vice President Hannibal Hamlin from the ticket. Replaced Hamlin with Andrew Johnson of Tennessee. Johnson was a Democrat and a pro-Union Southerner. Sherman’s capture of Atlanta showed the North that victory was near. In November, Lincoln won an easy victory.
13th Amendment The Thirteenth Amendment was ratified by the states and became law in December 1865. “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.” Lincoln noted in his Second Inaugural Address that slavery had divided the nation, but he also laid the groundwork to “bind up the nation’s wounds.”
Lincoln Is Assassinated Abraham Lincoln did not live to see the official end of the war. Throughout the winter of 1864–1865, a group of Southern conspirators in Washington, D.C., had plotted to kidnap Lincoln and exchange him for Confederate prisoners of war. After several unsuccessful attempts, their leader, John Wilkes Booth, assigned members of his group to assassinate top Union officials.
Lincoln Is Assassinated On April 14, 1865, Booth shot President Lincoln while he was watching a play at Ford’s Theater. Booth was shot to death after he had fled from the theater and was found hiding in a tobacco barn.