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The Civil War

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The Civil War

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The Civil War

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  1. The Civil War

  2. Two Nations • The Case Against Slavery • Slavery violated basic foundation of US • Prejudice – unreasonable and unfavorable opinion of a group • Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beacher Stowe • Epitome of slavery and northerners feelings • Southern Views on Slavery • Spoke out against Northerners • Argued that leaders had slaves so cant be all bad

  3. Annexation of Texas • 1836 – Texans voted to annex(join) the US • South and Dems wanted to make it a slave state • North and Whigs didn’t want South to have more power • Thought annexing lead to war with Mexico • Santa Anna threatened in 1843 • Annexation approved Feb 1845

  4. War with Mexico • Dispute over Southern boarder • Pres. Polk wanted more than just Texas • Sent Ambassador Slidell to buy NM and CA for $30 mil • Mexico wouldn’t let him in • Polk sent 3000 troops under Zachery Taylor • Declared war May 13, 1846

  5. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo • Feb 2, 1848 • Four Concessions • Mexico loses TX to Rio Grande River • Mexico loses part of NM and CA • US pay 15 million • US pays damage claims of citizens (3 mil) • Five years later – Gadsden Purchase – NM & AZ (10mil) • Opened west for expansion • Left Mexicans bitter

  6. Effects of the Missouri Compromise • Many problems since signed in 1820 • Only dealt with states not territories • New Mexican territory was south of 36 degrees

  7. Compromise of 1850 • Clay Proposes a compromise • 3 Key players • John Calhoun of SC • Daniel Webster of Mass. • Henry Clay of Kentucky

  8. Clay proposes five laws to help with slavery • CA admitted as a free state • NM & UT can decide on slavery • Abolish sale of slaves, but not slavery in DC • TX would give up claim to NM for $10 mil • Fugitive Slave Act – All people required to help return any runaway slaves, slaves do not get jury trial

  9. The Kansas-Nebraska Act • Sen. Stephen Douglas of Illinois • Wanted new states linked to Chicago by RR • Wanted to be president • 2 new non slave states would anger South • January 1854 • Popular sovereignty – let people in territory decide slavery • Wanted to repeal Missouri Compromise • Passed – north hated it, Douglas = sellout

  10. The Creation of the Republican Party • Northerners were outraged by KNA • Created Republican Party to fight “Slave Power”

  11. “Bleeding Kansas” • John Brown – God’s instrument to end slavery • May 24, 1856 killed 5 proslavery men and looted • Many more raids and counter raids

  12. Bleeding Sumner • Violence spread to the capitol • Charles Sumner gave speech on crimes in Kansas • Insulted the Southerners esp. Andrew Butler of SC • Preston Brooks, his nephew was mad • Approached Sumner’s desk and beat him with cane • Sumner never recovered • Northerners were outraged

  13. The Dread Scott Decision • March 1857 • Dread Scott filed against his master • Once lived in free areas = that made him free • Ruled 7 to 2 against Scott • Slavery are property not people, so cant sue • Missouri Compromise is unconstitutional • Cant be free just being in a free place

  14. Lincoln-Douglas Debates • Stephen Douglas of Kansas-Nebraska Act • Douglas –Little Giant, short, stout, white supremacy • Competing against little known Abraham Lincoln • 7 Debates • Lincoln – lawyer, tall, awkward, thin, quiet, plain clothes • Debated 2 ideas – majority rule and minority rights • Lincoln – slavery is bad, majority cant deny minority their rights • 1858 – Douglas won senate seat

  15. John Brown’s Raid • Oct 16, 1859 – attack on federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, VA • Wanted to give weapons to slaves • Dreamed of huge uprising • Col. Robert E. Lee defended the arsenal • Killed half of Brown’s men • Brown was hanged • Seen as a martyr

  16. Election of 1860 • Dem Party met to choose nominee • Slavery was main issue • Southern delegates left to choose own nominee • Whig and American Parties met in Baltimore • Became Constitutional Union Party • Republicans met in Chicago • Chose Abraham Lincoln • Election showed N/S line • Lincoln’s name not on most Southern ballots • Won 39% of vote and 180 Electoral votes

  17. Lower South Secedes • Mad that Lincoln won without any southern votes • Southerners wanted to leave the Union • Secessionists – thought who wanted South to secede • States choose to join so can choose to leave • South Carolina leaves December 20, 1860 • 6 more joined • Confederate States of America • President Jefferson Davis

  18. The War Starts – Last Minute Compromises Fail • Many believe secession was illegal • Tried to compromise over slavery • Lincoln – secession was wrong but slavery couldn’t expand • Had to focus on laws of country

  19. Fort Sumter • Charleston, SC April 1861 • SC left union but troops still at Sumter • Confederate Forces wouldn’t allow supplies in • Tried to resupply for weeks • Gen Beauregard took by force • Beginning of Civil War

  20. The Upper South Secedes • Lincoln had to respond to Sumter • Called for volunteers for the Army • Upper South (VA, NC, TN, AR) left

  21. Strengths of the North • 2x Railroad • 2x manufacturing • More money • Functions government • 2/3rds of pop lived there • Could have army and maintain economy • Fighting evil

  22. Strengths of the South • Most trained officers • Had to maintain defense to win • Moral preservation

  23. Union Military Strategies • Navel blockade of South • Use troops and gun boats on Mississippi River • Gen Winfield Scott’s plan – Anaconda Plan • Seized Confed capital of Richmond

  24. Confederate War Strategies • Prepare and wait • War of attrition – one side inflicts losses until other gives up • Stopped export of cotton • Thought Europe would miss it and aid them • Europe turned to India cotton • Blockade let nothing out • No exports = no money = no weapons

  25. Tactics and Technology • Old style war wasn't going to work • New bullets went straighter • Rifles sent bullets 5x further • Shells- devices that exploded in air or against something • Canister – shell filled with bullets

  26. The Battle of Antietam • General Robert E. Lee wanted to invade North • Antietam, Maryland September 17 • South outnumbered more than 2 to 1 • In 3 hours losses – Union 12000, Confed 14000

  27. Politics in the SouthMobilizing for War • Lee calls for draft • 3 yrs of service for white males 18-35 • Age range became 50 years old • Gov took control of economy • 1/10th of farmers product given to the Gov • Male slaves could be seized for military

  28. The North’s Mobilization • Financial Measures • 1861 – 1st federal income tax passed • Tax on liquor, tobacco, medicine, newspaper • Most taxes repealed after war • Congress created National currency = greenbacks • Not backed by gold • Opposition to the War • Had draft, too • Riots against it • Copperheads – Dems who opposed war and republican power

  29. Emancipation and The War • Lincoln and Slavery • Didn’t think it was his duty to end slavery • Saw it as a war time strategy • Emancipation Proclamation • January 1st, 1863 • Freed the slaves • Reaction to Proclamation • Upset only freed slaves in Confed areas controlled by Union • South condemned it • Europe saw it as a chance to get away from the South

  30. African Americans Join the War • The Contraband Issue • Left behind slaves taken by Union Army • Contraband – captured items became property of taker • Union Army employed newly freed slaves • African American Soldiers • 1865 – 180,000 AAs in the Union Army • ½ were freed Southern Slaves • All black regiments formed

  31. The Hardships of War Changes • E.P and black troops changed slaves in the South • Escaped or hindered plantation work • Men off fighting , women were running things

  32. The Southern Economy • Food shortages • Less people farming because off fighting • Looting and riots at bakeries • Industrial manufacturing did grow to make weapons • Mostly women workers • Inflation made profiteers rich

  33. The Northern Economy • Industry got bigger, especially war related • Women workers paid less = more profit

  34. Prison Camps • Captured prisoners treated well over all • Andersonville – 26 acre field to hold 10,000 men • 35,000 housed, 100 a day died

  35. Medical Care • 1/4th soldiers didn’t survive • Disease killed most • 3x more likely to die in camp than battle • Doctors didn’t clean instruments • Clara Barton • Collected supplies for the field • “Angel of the battlefield” • Founded the Red Cross • 4000 women became field nurses • Set up sanitation commission to clean camps

  36. The Battle of Gettysburg • Union had low morale due to huge losses • South was short on supplies marching North • Wanted win on Union land • Needed shoes – supply in Gettysburg, PA

  37. July 1, 1863 • Gunfire drew both sides units to town • Gen George Meade – new Union Gen arrived • Armies took up position on hills 4 miles long • Union line – Cemetery Ridge • Confed line – Seminary Ridge

  38. July 2, 1863 • Confed attacked at 4pm instead of 6am • Fought into the night • When out of ammo, used bayonets

  39. July 3, 1863 • Early morning scuffle • 1pm – 150 Confed cannons started firing • Infantry rushed center of Union line • Pickett's Charge – 15000 Confeds mile long, 3 deep • Union fired canister shells • 30 min later – no men left • Losses – Union 23000, Confed 28000 • Lee lost 1/3rd of his army • Bloodiest battle of the Civil War

  40. Importance of 1863 • July 4, 1863 – turning day of the war • Lee’s army was small and shrinking • Union kept taking Confed forts • Calls for peace began

  41. The Gettysburg Address • Nov 19, 1863 – 15,000 came • Dedication of cemetery • Featured Edward Everett – famous Public Speaker • Gave 2 hour intro to Pres. Lincoln • Lincoln spoke for 2 minutes • War was terrible & Union needed to be restored

  42. Grant Takes Command - 1864 • South’s strategies – hold on, especially to Richmond • Election in Nov, thought Lincoln would be replaced • Lincoln put Grant in control of Army

  43. Sherman in Georgia • Same plan as Grant’s • Had 98000 troops • Plan to seize Atlanta

  44. The Capture of Atlanta • Opponent was Gen Joseph Johnston • Tried to hold Sherman back until November • By July, Union 3 miles from ATL • Pres. Davis replaced Johnston with Hood • Engaged Union but soon retreated to ATL • After month of Siege, Sherman won

  45. Sherman Marches to the Sea • Plan to capture Savannah • Burned down Atlanta and left • Made 300 mile path of destruction • December 21, entered city

  46. The Election of 1864 • Lincoln assumed he’d be beaten • Had to fight Fremont for Republican nomination • Dems chose Gen. George McClellan • Lincoln won 212 of 233 EV

  47. A New Birth of Freedom • Feb 1865 – 13th Amendment passed • Ended slavery forever

  48. The End of the WarSherman Moves North • Left Savannah for SC • SC seen as heart of rebellion • Wanted to destroy resources and crush South’s will • Demolished everything in its way • Feb 17 – Columbia burned down

  49. Surrender at Appomattox • Desertions rose rapidly • Lee and 35000 went to meet Johnston’s troops • Lee disbanded and told to fight as guerrillas • Lee and Grant met in a private home • Talked briefly – weather, families • Surrender Terms • South Soldiers can go home • Won’t be tried as long as they obey laws • Freed soldiers in camps