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The Civil War

The Civil War

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The Civil War

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  1. The Civil War • -The Fighting • President Lincoln is reelected • Lincoln is assassinated NEXT

  2. 11.1 The Civil War Begins The secession of Southern states cause the North and the South to take up arms. NEXT

  3. SECTION 1 I. Confederates Fire on Fort Sumter A. The Confederacy Takes Control • Confederate soldiers take over govt, military installations • Fort Sumter—Union outpost in Charleston harbor • Confederates demand surrender B. Lincoln’s Dilemma • Reinforcing fort would lead to secession • Evacuating fort would legitimize Confederacy, endanger Union Continued . . . NEXT

  4. SECTION 1 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O9p7V7GrHjE • C. First Shots • Lincoln just sends food • For South, no action would damage sovereignty of Confederacy • Jefferson Davis chooses to turn peaceful secession into war • - fires on Sumter April 12, 1861 NEXT

  5. SECTION 1 II. Americans Expect a Short War A. Union and Confederate Advantages Union advantages: • More railroads (2x South’s railroad) • More factories (90% of nation’s) •Better balance between farming & industry •More money (3/4 of nations financial resources) •A functioning govt, army, & navy •2/3 of nation’s population and states (19 free states, 4 slave holding border states) - 22 million pop. (South 9 million, 4 million slaves) Confederate advantages: •Leadership: Most of nation’s military colleges were in South; most officers sided w/ Confederacy •Military tactics: needed only to repel Northern attacks. •Morale: eager to fight to preserve their way of life & their right to self- govt NEXT

  6. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nANJYQ9pd_Y http://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/first-battle-of-bull-run III. Union and Confederate Strategies A. Anaconda plan:Union strategy to conquer South - blockade Southern ports - divide Confederacy in two in west (Mississippi R.) - capture Richmond, Confederate capital B. Confederate strategy: War of attrition- defend territory, prolong the war, invade North if opportunity arises C. Bull Run • Bull Run—first major battle; Confederate victory • Thomas Jackson called Stonewall for firm stand in battle

  7. SECTION 1 IV. Union Armies in the West • A. Protecting Washington, D.C. • After Bull Run, Lincoln calls for 1 million additional soldiers • Appoints General George McClellan to lead Army of the Potomac • B. Forts Henry and Donelson • General Ulysses S. Grant—brave, tough commander in West • Feb. 1862, Grant captures Confederate Forts Henry, Donelson Continued . . . NEXT https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yLyWvICy1DY

  8. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=exM2YuGoWIE SECTION 1 V. A Revolution in Warfare • A. Ironclads • New ironclad ships instrumental in • victories • Ironclads splinter wooden ships, • withstand cannon, resist burning • March 1862, North’s Monitor, South’s • Merrimack fight to a draw • B. New Weapons • Rifles more accurate, faster loading, fire more rounds than muskets • grenades, land mines are used • Fighting from trenches new advantage http://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/civil-war-technology NEXT

  9. http://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/battle-of-antietamhttp://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/battle-of-antietam SECTION 1 VI. The War for the Capitals • A. Antietam • Lee wins Second Battle of Bull Run; marches • into Maryland • Lee, McClellan clash at Antietam—bloodiest single-day battle • Battle a standoff; Confederates retreat; • McClellan does not pursue • - Lincoln fires McClellan NEXT https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lJiMlgvygvc