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The Civil War

The Civil War

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The Civil War

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  1. The Civil War Part II: The Course

  2. Oak Alley Plantation -Built in the 1830s Was home to over 100 slaves

  3. Slave Cabin-tin sided building

  4. Slave quarters

  5. Plantation Slaves-Georgia

  6. Cotton Field-Tennessee

  7. Slave family-Savannah, Georgia

  8. Slave punishment

  9. How the War Began • Fort Sumter • Remained under federal control. • Lincoln had to decide whether or not to send it supplies. Sending supplies would risk war, but didn’t want to give in either • Confederacy decided to attack before any supplies could arrive • For 34 hours the Confederacy fired shells into the fort until it surrendered

  10. Fort Sumter Video •

  11. Lincoln’s First Move • Lincoln asked the Union states for 75,000 militia to put down the South’s uprising • Upper Southern states did not want to go against South Carolina and decided to join the Confederacy (Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Arkansas)

  12. Choosing Sides • Maryland stayed in the Union • Kentucky stayed in the Union • Missouri and Delaware stayed in the Union • Western counties of Virginia broke away and formed West Virginia and this part returned to the Union • 24 states in the Union, 11 in the Confederacy

  13. Strengths of Each Side Confederacy More people 85% of factories located there Double the railroad Almost all naval power and shipyards belonged in the North Abraham Lincoln’s leadership Knowledgable and experienced war leaders Fighting in the South (homeland and near supplies) How does this compare to the colonists in the American Revolution Union

  14. Union Strategy • Anaconda Plan-smother the South’s economy • Naval blockade of the South’s coastline-no goods go in or out • Gain control of the Mississippi to split the Confederacy into two • Immediate attack on Richmond, Virginia-Lincoln ordered an invasion in summer 1861

  15. Anaconda Plan

  16. Confederate Strategy • Began with defensive approach-didn’t want to conquer North, just wanted to be left alone • Tried to withold cotton from the market to get foreign support but European nations didn’t want to get involved • Later took offensive and tried for big victories to weaken Northern spirit and attitude

  17. Confederate soldiers

  18. Lincoln’s second step • Union invasion of Virginia • Needed to defeat Confederate troops at Manassas, Virginia near a creek called Bull Run • Confederates were victorious under leadership of General Thomas J “Stonewall” Jackson • North realized it had underestimated its opponent and Lincoln send the 90-day militia home and called in a real army of 5000,000 volunteers for 3 years

  19. Battle of Bull Run •

  20. Mary Todd Lincoln bio •

  21. Ulysses S Grant Contributes • Used ironclad gunboats, captured Ft Henry and Ft Donelson on Cumberland River-opened river access to heart of the South (northern Alabama) • Rallied troops after a surprise attack near Shiloh church in Tennessee-Union was victorious but with a high number of casualties • “I can’t spare this man-he fights”—said by Abe Lincoln about General Grant

  22. Robert E Lee Contributes • Leads Confederates to a 2nd victory at Bull Run which pushes the Union troops back to D.C.-this ends Union threat in Virginia • Decides to invade the North by crossing the Potomac into Maryland • Met Union army at Antietam Creed for the bloodiest battle in all of American History • Lost about 1/3 of his men and withdrew to Virginia

  23. Grant or Lee? Who would you choose? •

  24. Robert E Lee bio •

  25. Jefferson Davis-President of the Confederate States •

  26. Antietam • One of the bloodies battles of the Civil War •

  27. Emancipation Proclamation • What is it??? •

  28. Lincoln and Emancipation? • Abolitionists wanted Lincoln to free or emancipate slaves • Hesitated because of lack of support for emancipation from Northern Democrats, Republicans and the 4 slave states still in the Union • Didn’t want slavery to further divide the nation • By the summer of 1862, decided in favor of emancipation in order to weaken the South by taking away slaves fighting in their army • Waited until after the battle of Antietam

  29. Emancipation Proclamation • Issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1st, 1863 • Freed all slaves in the Confederacy-very few were actually free because Union soldiers were not close enough to enforce this • Only freed slaves in Confederacy because the Constitution allowed it as a military strategy • Symboloic measure making the goal of war Liberation • Encouraged African-American men to fight for the Union

  30. Emancipation Proclamation •

  31. Gettysburg…The Beginning of the End • After several Union losses and the death of Confederate General Stonewall Jackson, troops from both sides met at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania • Union General Meade had 90,000 troops vs. 75,000 troops under Confederate General Lee • Battle went on for 3 days with each side trying to get control of the high ground • 2 “round top” hills, Cemetery Ridge and Culp’s Hill

  32. Gettysburg…continued • Turning point was Pickett’s Charge-a direct attack to the middle of the Union line by Confederate troops-turned out to be a deadly mistake • Union Failed to counterattack and finish off Lee and his army once and for all • Still there was reason for the Union to celebrate, the losses for the Confederacy were greater-they lost about 1/3 of Lee’s army

  33. Pickett’s Charge •

  34. Gettysburg •

  35. Gettysburg Address •

  36. How Did it All End? • Grant had defeated Confederate troops at Vicksburg, Mississippi after a siege of the area • Union General Sherman took control over Atlanta and waged total war against troops and everything that supported the enemy-crops, RR lines, towns • Sherman took Savannah, Georgia

  37. How Did it All End? • Grant fought terrible battles on his way to Richmond. Lost many men but would not retreat • Finally laid seige to Richmond and eventually Lee pulled out and left Richmond undefended. Union troops took over Richmond, took down the Confederate flag and raised up a US flag • Lee and Grant meet at the small Virginia town of Appomattox Court House to arrange a Confederate surrendor

  38. Ending of the Civil War video


  40. Some effects of the war on the U.S. • 13th Amendment passed in 1865, which banned slavery in the United States • Lincoln was assassinated 5 days after the surrender at Appomattox by John Wilkes Booth • Lost a great leader with experience and political skills during a challenging time • Northern economy thrived with manufacturing, Southern economy was a disaster with plantations destroyed and livestock dead, labor system was also gone

  41. Reconstruction Begins • Reconstruction: the federal government’s process to readmit the Confederate states to the Union • Lasted from 1865-1877 • Lincoln promised to be understanding and may pardon Confederate officials and allow Confederate states to form governments and send representatives to Congress • Andrew Johnson took over after Lincoln was killed

  42. Legacy of the war •

  43. Radical Reconstruction • Divided the south into 5 military districts ran by an army commander • Members of the ruling class before the war lost their voting rights • Southern states had to approve new constitutions that gave the right to vote to all men including African Americans and they must ratify the 14th Amendment