THE CIVIL WAR 10TH Grade American History
GETTING STARTEDSection 1 –"COTTON GIN, COTTON BOOM" • The Industrial Revolution greatly increased the demand for southern cotton. Textile mills in the North and in Britain needed more and more cotton to make cloth. • At first, southern planters could not meet the demand. They could grow plenty of cotton because the South´s soil an climate were ideal. • However, removing the seeds from the cotton by hand was a slow process. Planters needed a better way to clean cotton.
Eli Whitney, a young Connecticutschoolteacher, wastravelingto Georgia in 1793. • He was going to be a tutor on a plantation. At that time, there were few public shcools in the South. • When Whitney learned of the planter´s problem, he decided to build a machine to clean cotton. • In only 10 days, Whitney came up with a model. • A single worker using a gin could do the work of 50 people cleaning cotton by hand. Eli Whitney – The Cotton Gin
The cotton gin gave the South a new cash crop. Cotton brought much higher returns than tabocco or wheat. • Cottonplantationownerscouldmakearound $6,500 to $10,000 per year. At that time, a factoryworker up northwouldearnabout $300 a year. • The cotton gin led to a boom in cotton • production. In 1792, planters grew • only 6,000 bales of cotton a year. • By 1850, the fiugre was over 2 million • bales. The Cotton Gin's Impact on the South
Bythe 1850’s,therewerecottonplantationsfrom South Carolina through Alabama and Mississippi to Texas. • This area of the South became known as the Cotton Kingdom. • Tragically, as the Cotton Kingdom spread, so did slavery. • Planters soon learned that soil wore out if planted with cotton year after year. They needed new land to cultivate. • So, cotton planters began to move west. The Cotton Gin's Impact on the South
Cottongrowing and slaverycreated a new kind of Society in the South. • The most powerful families were the big plantation owners. They were the upper class, along with merchants who bought and sold their cotton. • Southern society looked something like this: Cotton Reshaped Southern Society
1.-Upper Class: Plantationowners and merchants. • 2.-Middle class: the majority of the whites in the south. Owned small farms and a slave or two. • 3.- Lower class: poor farmers. Did not own slaves or farms. • 4.- "Free people of color": African Americans who had gained their freedom. • 5.- African American Slaves.
Section 2 –"Slave Labor" Cotton wasan ideal cropforslave labor. Itrequired a lot of handwork. Work in the Cotton Fields • Slaves on large cotton plantations worked under an overseer. This man was hired to supervise the slaves' work. Overseerswhippedslavesforgettingtothefield late, notpickingenoughcotton, notobeyingorders, and fortalking back.
a.- Field slaves had long workdays. -They were in the field each moring at dawn. -After a brief midday break they worked until dark. Sundays, Christmas, and the Fourth of July usually were their only days off.
b.- House slaves: about one out of four slaves were house slaves. They worked in the plantation owner's house instead of in the fields. House slaves cooked, did kitchen chores, cleaned the house, and did laundry. They also helped raise the planter's children. They were always working, even on Sundays.
"Slave Resistance" Slaves did not always follow the orders of their overseers and masters. Slaves found ways to resis the overseer´s demands: -They deliberately slowed down the pace of work. -Avoided work by pretending they were sick. -By breaking tools -Damaging crops
"Slave Resistance" On rare occasions, slaves rebelled. -In 1800, Gabriel Prosser tried to organize a slave rebellion in Virginia. The plan was discovered and he was executed. -Nat Turner led a slave uprising in 1831. He and other 40 slaves killed more than 60 people.
Section 3 –"Slave Community" Mostslaveshadfamilies. Plantersdidnotobjecttoslaveshavingchildren, theyactuallyencouragedit so theywouldhave more slaves. The greates threat to the family was the possibility of a parent or a child being sold and taken away to another plantation. Family life took place in the slave quarters. These were clusters of shacks where slaves ate, slept, and lived.
"Slave Trade" The buying and selling of slaves, was a profitable business. The traders sold the slaves at a slave auction. They were put on display and sold to the highest bidder. To make sure they were healthy, they inspected their skin and teeth. Slave sales were heartbreaking scenes. Bidders often bought only one member of the family.
“TOWARDS A MORE PERFECT SOCIETY” American History 11th Grade
Religion and Reform • In theearly 1800s, Americanshad a renewedinterest in religion. Tosavetheirownsouls, theyflockedtoreligiousmeetingscalledrevivals. • Theserevivals are calledtheSecond Great Awakening(TheFirstonetook place in the 1740’s). Manypeopledecidedtomakelifebetterforothers as well as themselves. So they set outtoreform, orimprove, society.
TheSecond Great Awakening • TheRevivalsbeganduringthe 1790s in the West. • Churchleadersworriedaboutpeoplewhohad moved westlike in Kentucky and the Ohio River Valley. • Fewchurchesexisted in that new area. • Preachersweresenttosavethesouls of peopleonthefontier. • A ministerwouldfind a clearing in thewoods, stand on a stump, and beginpreaching.
Thepreachershad a powerfulmessage: “Ifpeopledidnotchangetheirways, theywouldbedestinedtoburnforeverandnotgotoheaven”. TheSecond Great Awakeningmaderevivals popular. ItgavemanyAmericans a deeperreligiousfaith. Theawakeningalsobrought more peopletochurch more often.
ReformingSociety • FormanyAmericans, savingtheirownsoulswasnotenough. TheywanedtoupliftAmericaSociety. • Bythe 1830s manythoughtliquorwasevil. • Otherswanted free publicschools. • Otherswantedtobuildbetterprisons and to open hospitalsforthementallyill.
Antislavery and Women’sRights • Bythe1830’s more peopleopposedslaverythaneverbefore. Revival preachersdenouncedslaveowning as a sin. • TheysawthatitviolatedtheDeclaration of Independence, whichstated: “Weholdthesetruthstobeself-evident, thatallmen are createdequal…”
ManypeoplethoughtthattheDeclarationappliedtowomen as well as men. So thosewhoopposedslaveryoftenworkedforwomen’srightstoo.
Emancipation and Abolition • Bythe 1820s, mostreformerscalledforthe gradual emancipation of slaves. Theyencouragedownersto free theirslaves as soon as theycould, butdidnotexpectthemtoremain in theUnitedStates. • TheywantedtosendthefreedslavestoLiberia, a colony in Africa. Free blackshad a differetpoint of viewonthat. Theywantedslaverytobeabolishedimmediately.
DIVIISION AND REUNION THE CIVIL WAR
“Union! I can more easilyconceive of theLion and Lambslyingdowntogether, than of a union of theNorth and South.”
The Missouri Compromise • Therewere11 free statesand 11 slavestatesin 1819. • Thatyear, CongresscosideredMissouri’sapplicationtojointheunion as a slavestate. Immediately, a crisis erupted. • Missouri’sadmissionwould givethe South a majority in theSenate. • Determinednotto lose power, northenersopposedletting Missourienter as a slavestate.
The Missouri Compromise • Theargumentlastedseveralmonths. Finally a senator, named Henry Clay, made a proposal. • Maine hadalsoappliedforstatehood, so thesenatorsuggestedadmitting Missouri as a slavestate and Maine as a free state. • His plan, calledtheMissouri Compromise, keptthenumberof slaveand free statesequal.
The Missouri Compromise • As part of theMissouri Compromise, Congressdrewanimaginary line acossthesouthernborder of Missouri at latitue 36°30´N. • Slaverywaspermittedin thepart of theLouisianaPurchasesouth of that line. • Itwasbannednorthof the Missouri Compromise line. Theonlyexceptionwas Missouri.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tgELv4aNHjQ • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FoXLNZEcXvg&feature=related
Slavery in the West • The Missouri CompromiseappliedonlytotheLouisianaPurchase. In 1848, theMexicanWaraddedvast western landstotheUnitedStates. Once againthequestion of slavery in theterritoriesarose. • Norhternerswereworriedthatthe South wouldextendslaveryintothe West. • David Wilmotcalledfor a lawtobanslavery in anyterritory won fromMexico. Southernerswere angry. • Theypassedthe Wilmot Provisto in 1846, butitwasdefeated.
TheSlavery Debate EruptsAgain • For a time aftertheMissouri Compromise, bothslaves and free statesenteredtheUnionpeacefully. However, whenCaliforniarequestedadmissiontotheUnion as a free statein 1850, the balance of power in theSenatewas once againthreatened. In 1849, therewere 15 slave states and 15 free states. If California enteredtheunion as a free state, the balance of powerwouldbebroken.
Southernersfearedthatthe South wouldbehoplesslyoutvoted in theSenate. • Someevensuggestedthatsouthernstatesmightwanttosecede, orremovethemselves, fromtheUnitedStates. • Northenerstoughtitshouldentertheunion as a free statesincethemajority of thestatewasabovethe Missouri Compromise line.
Compromise of 1850 • TheCompromisehadfiveparts: 1.-California wouldenteredtheUnion as a free state. 2.- Itdividedtherest of theterritorytheyobtainedfromMexicointo New Mexico and Utah. *Voters in each of thesetwostateswould decide forthemselvesifthetheywantedslaveryornot. 3.- Slave tradeended in thenation’s capital, Washington D.C. 4.- ***Included a strictfugitivelaw. 5.- Settled a border dispute between Texas and New Mexico.
Fugitive Slave Act • Requiredallcitizenstohelp catch runawayslaves. Peoplewholetfugitivesescapedwouldbefined $1,000 and jailed. • Judgesrecieved$10 forsendinganaccusedrunawaytothe South butonly$5forsettingsomeone free. Luredbythe extra money, somejudgessentAfricanAmericanstothesouthwhetherornottheywererunaways.
TheElection of 1860 • Lincoln iselectedpresident of thenation. Hiselectionbrought a strongreaction in the South. • Tomanysoutherners, Lincoln’selectionmeantthatthe South no longerhad a voice in nationalgovernment. • TheythoughtthePresidentwasagainsttheirinterests.
Secession • Beforetheelection, a governorfromthe South wrote: • “If Lincoln wins, itwouldbeourdutytoleavetheUnion”. • Southernersfeltthatsecessionwastheironlychoice. • OnDecember 20,1860, South Carolina becamethefirststatetosecede. By late February, 1861, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texashadalsoseceded, • At a convention, thesevenstatesformed a new nation, the CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA. Jefferson Davis of Mississippi becamethefirstpresident of theConfederancy.
The Civil WarBegins • When Lincoln tooktheoath of office onMarch 4, 1861, he faced a dangeroussituation. In his inaugural address, Lincoln warnedthat“no state . . . Can lawfullygetoutiftheUnion.” Still, he pledgedthattherewouldbe no warunlessthe South startedit.
Afterfouryears of warfare(1861-1865), mostlywithintheSouthernstates, theConfederacysurrendered and slaverywasoutlawedeverywhere in thenation.
EmancipationProclamation • ItwasanexecutiveorderissuedbyAbraham Lincoln onJanuary 1, 1863. Itproclaimedthefreedom of 3.1 million of thenation’s 4 millionslaves. • Total abolition of slaverywasfinializedbytheThirteenthAmendmentwhichtookeffect in December 1865.