Vietnam Government/History 354 Campbell University
Location Vietnam is surrounded by China to the north; Laos, Cambodia and the Gulf of Siam to the west; and the Gulf of Tonkin, and South China Sea to the east.
Characteristics • Vietnam is slightly larger than New Mexico in land area (128,066 sq miles). • Most land is mountainous or hilly. Only 20% is arable. • The climate is hot and humid, subject to the Monsoons. • Its population is 84 million. 86.2%Viet (Kinh) with significant Chinese and Montagnard minorities. • 80.8% express no religious preference, 9.% are Buddhist & 6.7% Catholic.
After Effects of War • Following the end of the war in 1975, Vietnam engaged in reeducation and collectivization, Soviet style. • From 1975 into the 1990s, refugees fled Vietnam, many as boat people. They were accepted: • United States – 823,000 • Australia & Canada – 137,00 each. • France – 96,000. • Germany & U.K. – 19, 000 each • The Philippines, Thailand and Hong Kong were temporary refuges. Vietnamese child in Thailand, 1980
Economy • Up to the time of its fall, the Soviet Union was Vietnam’s principal supporter. • In 1986, Doi Moi (Renovation) was instituted. The GNP is now growing at the rate of 8.4% annually. • Per capita income rose from $220 per person to $638 per person in 2005. • The U.S. is its primary export partner (22.2%) Nguyen Tan Dung was elected P.M. in 2006 at the age of 56. China is Vietnam’s primary import partner.
Recent Foreign Relations • Invaded Cambodia in 1978. Was punished by a Chinese military campaign in 1979. • Withdrew from Cambodia in 1989. • Normalized relations with U.S. in 1995. • Is a member of ASEAN & AFTA and is seeking membership in the WTO. Ho Chi Min City in the rain. Tourism has become a significant source of income. Vietnam’s beaches are among the most beautiful in the world.
Early History • The Hung Dynasty (2879-258 B.C.) was established by Hung Vuong, son of the Lac Dragon Lord, and Au Co, a Chinese immortal. The kingdom was called Van Lang. • In the 6th Century B.C., established wet rice culture and tidal irrigation under feudal Lac Field Lords. Upper Red River delta looking toward Yunnan Province, China.
Formation of Nam Viet • An Duong Vuong conquered Van Lang in the 3rd B.C. and united it with Thuc to form Au Lac. • Following the fall of the Qin Dynasty, Trieu Da established Nam Viet in 207 B.C. It included Au Lac and extended from Canton to Hue. • In 111B.C., Nam Viet became a province of Han China and remained so to until 939A.D. Hue City Gate
The Trung Sisters • Han Chinese rule became increasingly oppressive. Increased taxes and cultural conformity were demanded, including a patriarchal family structure. • In 39 A.D., the Trung sisters lead a revolt in Tongkin and ruled jointly for two years, then committed suicide in the face of massive Chinese retaliation. A celebration of the Trung sisters’ revolt.
Champa • Kiu-lien revolted against China in 192 A.D. to establish the independent Champa (Lin- Yi) with its capital at Indrapura. • The Chams were an Indianized Malay people who were involved in the spice trade and vied for territory with the Khmers of Funan/Chenla. Cham towers between Hue and Danang
Questions • Q1. Which country accepted most of the refugees from Vietnam? • A1. The USA. The number was 823,000. • Q2. What was Doi Moi? • A2. It means “renovation.” The Communist government opened the economy to private enterprise. • Q3. Why did China attack Vietnam in 1979? • A3. To support its client state, Cambodia.
More Questions • Q4. During which years was Vietnam first a province of China? • A4. 111 BC to 939 AD. • Q5. Who were the Lac Lords? • A5. Native Vietnamese feudal chieftains who controlled irrigation and owned large rice land estates. • Q5. Who were the Trung sisters? • A5. They led a revolt against the Chinese in 39 AD and ruled jointly for two years before committing suicide.
Still More Questions • Q6. Who were the Chams? • A6. An Indianized Malay people who lived in the southern part of Vietnam and became independent of China in 192AD. • Q7. Who was Trieu Da? • A7. The Chinese general (war lord) who founded Nam Viet in 207 BC, after the fall of the Qin Dynasty.
Dai Viet Independence • Chinese suzerainty over Vietnam was destabilized by: • The Thai kingdom of Nan Chao briefly seizing control of the country in 862. • The collapse of the Tang Dynasty in 907. • In 939, Ngo Quyen, a Vietnamese general, pushed Chinese forces out of the country. • In 968, Dinh Bo Linh, a local chieftain, united the country and established a peasant mobilization system capable of producing a 100,000 man militia, called the Ten Circuit Army.
March South • Binh Bo Linh died in 979. Le Hoan, his military commander, seized the throne, repulsed a Song Chinese attempt to regain control of Vietnam and began the “March South” in 982 by sacking Indrapura. • By 1079, the Chams were forced to cede three northern provinces. Vietnamese peasants quickly occupied the land and converted it to rice production, delta by delta along the narrow coastal plain.
Ly Dynasty • Le Hoan was succeeded in 1009 by Ly Cong Uan, commander of the palace guard. He took the reign name of Ly Thai To and established his capital at Dai La (Hanoi). The dynasty lasted until 1225. • The Ly kings established a stable and prosperous state: • Buddhism became the state religion. • Copied the Chinese civil service model with examinations and a nine-grade rank structure.
Tran Dynasty • Tran Thai Tong founds the Tran dynasty thru marriage to a Ly princess in 1225. The Tran had served as regents to the Ly Dynasty for many years. • Under the Tran dynasty (1225-1400), the country prospered and flourished. The Tran retained continuity of rule thru ritual and ideology, made extensive land reforms, introduced standardized dike construction, improved public administration thru bureaucratic forms, and encouraged the study of Chinese literature.
The Mongols • Between 1257 and 1287, the Mongols attempted three invasions of Vietnam. The first two were defeated thru strategic withdrawal. The third involved destruction of a force of a ½ million troops and a 400 ships by General Tran Hung Dao. • The Chams defeated the Mongols thru equally heroic guerrilla warfare. Kublai Khan
Le Dynasty • Dynastic decline led the Ming Dynasty to intervene in Vietnam in 1407. A 20 year period of harsh and exploitive rule followed. • In 1418, Le Loi led the Lam Son Uprising which resulted in the defeat the Chinese army after 10 years of guerrilla warfare and established the Le Dynasty (1426-1788), a cultural highpoint. • In 1471, Le Thanh Ton conquers Champa. Only the area around Nha Trang remained under Cham control. At the same time, Laos became a vassal state.
Early Christian Contact • In 1615, the Jesuits open a mission in Hoi An (Fai Fo), south of Danang. Alexander de Rhodes devises a system for Romanizing Vietnamese called quoc ngu, which he used to write a catechism. • Converted 6,000 Vietnamese before being forced to leave the country in 1630. Alexander de Rhodes
Vietnam Partitioned • The Trinh-Nguyen Wars (1627-73) resulted from General Mac Dang Dung’s attempt to seize the Le throne in 1527. The Trinh and the Nguyen entered the civil war. Each claimed to be defending the Le. • The Chinese recognized the claims of each: Trinh in the north and Nguyen in the south. • In 1631, the Nguyen built an 18 foot-high wall 11.5 miles long with fortifications from the Annam Mts. to the sea near Dong Hoi (close to the 17th parallel) to defend against Trinh attacks.
Tayson Rebellion (1771-1802) • The Tayson rebellion ended the rule of the Trinh, Nguyen and puppet Le dynasty. The rebellion was a reaction to uncontrolled inflation, famine and confiscatory taxes. The goal was to eliminate the Nguyen dynasty and redistribute the property of the rich. • The rebellion was led by three brothers from the village of Tayson in the South who took the Nguyen sir name. • The Taysons deserve credit for the first Tet Offensive in 1789. On January 25, in a five-day campaign Nguyen Hue (reign name Quang Trung) defeated a Chinese force of 200,000 that had invaded the North to support the Le dynasty.
Emperor Gia Long • Nguyen Anh was the last of the Nguyen royal line. He took refuge in Thailand from the Tayson rebels, but returned in 1788 to captured Saigon, then Hue in 1801 and Hanoi in 1802. • His successful restoration of unity to the country was partially based on support from the French. A French missionary, Bishop Pegneau de Behaine, took up his cause, traveled to France in 1787 and arranged a treaty with Louis XVI that provided military assistance. That was just a year before the French revolution.
Gia Long (Cont’d) • The Franco-Vietnamese treaty granted the French a monopoly on Vietnamese external trade, an island, the port of DaNang and allowed missionary activity in exchange for military aid. • Nguyen Anh took the reign name of Gia Long [a contraction of Gia Dinh (Saigon area) and Than Long (Hanoi area)] when he proclaimed himself emperor of Nam Viet. • He took Hue as his capital and built the Purple Forbidden City. Gia Long
Questions • Q1. What was the Ten Circuit Army? Who organized it? • A1. A peasant militia capable of producing a 100,000 man force. It was designed to defend 10 geographic districts (circuits), each composed of 10 armies of 10 brigades each, ten companies strong. Founded by Binh Bo Linh in 968. • Q2. What and where was Indrapura? • A2. It was the capital of Champa, located between Hue and Danang.
More Questions • Q3. How did General Tran Hung Dao destroy the Mongol fleet of 400 ships in 1287? • A3. He drove steel tipped spikes into the bed of the Bac Dang River, then lured the fleet into the river at high tide. • Q4. When and why was Vietnam first partitioned? • A4. It was partitioned during the Trinh-Nguyen Wars (1627-1673), when the Nguyen built a wall from the mountains to the sea near Dong Hoi in 1631.
Still More Questions • Q5. What factors led to the Tayson Rebellion? • A5. Taxation, inflation, famine and dislike of the Nguyen dynasty. • Q6. When was the first Tet Offensive? • A6. In 1789, against Chinese forces stationed around Hanoi. Led by Nguyen Hue, one to the Tayson brothers. • Q7. What is quoc ngu? Who invented it? • A7. A system for writing Vietnamese using Romanized script. It was invented by Alexander de Rhodes, a Jesuit missionary. • Q8. The Lam Son Uprising led to the establishment of what dynasty? • A8. Le Loi led the uprising to establish the Le dynasty.
And Still More Questions • Q9. What were the conditions of the Franco-Vietnamese Treaty of 1787? • A9. In return for military assistance, the Vietnamese granted the French a monopoly on external trade, an island, the port of Danang and the right to proselytize. • Q10. What was Nguyen Anh’s reign name? What did it symbolize? • A10. Giah Long. It symbolized unity of the north and south. Gia came from Giah Dinh(Saigon area); Long from Than Long (Hanoi area).
The Christian Wedge • In 1820 & 1833, reinstitution of repressive taxes and cultural Sinification led to rebellions in Giah Dinh. • By 1841, there were 450,000 Christians in southern Vietnam. • Emperor Minh Mang attempted to suppress Christianity by banning missionaries and closing ports to Europeans. • In 1846, the French blockaded and then bombarded Tourane killing thousands to free a condemned priest.
Cochin China • In 1858, the death of a French and a Spanish priest led to joint expeditionary force capturing Tourane. • In 1859, the French captured Gia Dinh (Saigon) and the surrounding provinces in 1862. • Emperor Tu Duc signed the Treaty of Saigon in 1862: ceding three provinces in the Gia Dinh region, opening three ports to international trade, granting the right to navigate the Mekong and agreeing to pay a P 4 million indemnity. • Tu Duc redirected his forces to Bac Bo to suppress a large Christian supported rebellion in 1865.
Exploring the Back Door • In 1866, Francis Garnier and Doudart de Lagree charted the Mekong in search of a navigable route into South China. None was found. • They did find that extensive trade passed through Tonking. • After de Lagree died, Garnier continued the mission all the way to Shanghai by joining the Yangtze River. He covered 5,392 miles Stamp issued in 1943 honoring Francis Garnier. He received the Victoria medal for his exploration of the Mekong.
The Red River Alternative • In 1868, Jean Dupuis (a trader), among many, discussed opening a Red River route to China with Garnier and others. • In 1873, Garnier was asked to mediate a dispute over shipping on the Red River involving Dupuis. He unilaterally declared the river open to international trade and seized Haiphong. He was later killed in a battle with Black Flag pirates. • Based on Garnier’s initiative, a treaty was signed in 1873 confirming the open status of the Red River and opening three ports in Tonking.
French Indochina • Three countries formed Indochina: Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos. • In 1863, the Franco-Khmer treaty established a protectorate over Cambodia. • The Thais then confronted the French with a secret Thai-Khmer treaty. In 1867, Thais gained sovereignty over Battambang and Siem Reap in return for giving up claims of suzerainty over Cambodia.
French Indochina (Cont’d) • In 1882, Henri Riviere attempted to clear the Red River of pirates, only to be defeated by the Black Flag. The French claimed mandarin obstruction in violation of the 1873 treaty. • The Vietnamese are forced to agree to a French protectorate over the entire country in 1883-4. • In 1885, the Vietnamese seek Chinese assistance. The French naval forces easily best the Chinese leading to the Treaty of Tientsin. The Chinese recognized the French protectorate and granted the right to build a RR from Hanoi to Kunming.
Indochinese Union • In 1887, the French formally established the Indochinese Union composed of Tonking, Annam, Cochin, Cambodia and Laos (added as a protectorate in 1893). Each was administered as a separate province. • The Vietnamese emperor was stripped of all authority. A Resident Superior governed in his name. • In 1898, the French took over tax collection and the payment of officials.
Questions • Q1. How many Christians were in southern Vietnam by 1841? • A1. 450,000. • Q2. Why were the Vietnamese monarchs opposed to Christianity? • A2. It was heterodox and considered subversive? • Q3. What were the provisions of the 1862 Treaty of Saigon? • A3. The Emperor ceded three provinces in the Gia Dinh region, opened three ports, granted the right to navigate the Mekong and agreed to pay a P 4 million indemnity.
More Questions • Q4. Why did Emperor Tu Duc sign the Treaty of Saigon rather than fight? • A4. He had little real support among the people, overestimated the strength of French forces and had to cope with a Christian supported rebellion in Bac Bo. • Q5. For what was Francis Garnier awarded the Victoria medal? • A5. His exploration of the Mekong River from Saigon to Shanghai.
Still More Questions • Q6. What was the allure of opening the Red River? • A6. It provided a backdoor into China. • Q7. Who were the Black Flag pirates? • A7. Composed of largely of Chinese soldiers who fled south after the Taiping rebellion. They were frequently in the service of the mandarin. • Q8. How did the French acquire a protectorate over Cambodia? • A8. The Franco-Khmer Treaty of 1863. The treaty was welcomed by the Cambodians.
The Rise of Nationalism • 1885-1913 - Can Vuong (Aid the King). • Phan Boi Chau. • 1902 – Published Ryukyu’s Bitter Tears. • 1904 – Founded Duy Tan Hoi (Reformation Society). • 1905 – Published History of the Loss of Vietnam. • 1906-07 – founded the Viet Nam Cong Hien Hoi (Vietnam Public Offering Society) in Japan. • 1912 - Founded the Viet Nam Quang Phuc Hoi (Vietnam Restoration Society). Phan Boi Chau was arrested in 1925.
Rise of Nationalism (Cont’d) • Ho Chih Minh • 1919 – Tried to petition Woodrow Wilson in Paris. • 1920 – Was a founding member of the French Communist Party. • 1925 - Founded the Revolutionary Youth League • 1926 - Wrote The Revolutionary Path. • 1930 – Founded Indochina Communist Party (ICP). • 1941 – Established the Viet Minh. Ho Chi Minh
Rise of Nationalism (Cont’d) • Nguyen Thai Hoc • 1927 – Founded the Viet Nam Quoc Dan Dang (VNQDD) or Vietnamese Nationalist Party on the KMT model. • 1930-31 – Ordered the Yen Bay mutiny as part of a general uprising. It is suppressed and VNQDD crushed. • 1936 - The ICP organized a Democratic National Front. • Bao Dai returned from France in 1932 to head reformed monarchy. Ngo Dinh Diem was Minister of Interior and head of the reform commission. Diem resigned in frustration at French intransigence.
World War II • The French Vichy government opened Vietnam to the Japanese. • Ho Chih Minh set up headquarters in a cave in Bac Bo in 1941. Vo Nguyen Giap was appointed to lead Viet Minh military forces. • Ho’s resistance campaign against the Japanese and Vichy French was supported by the U.S. Office of Strategic Services. Vo Nguyen Giap 1911
The August Revolution • The Viet Minh occupied Hanoi in August and proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) on September 2, 1945. No other state recognized it. • The British occupied Cochin on behalf of the French on September 12. • The Nationalist Chinese occupied Hanoi and the north with 180,000 troops on September 16 and forced the DRV to negotiate with the VNQDD. • Ho agreed to the French replacing the Chinese in Hanoi in exchange for recognition of the DRV.
First Indochina War • In 1946, 150,000 French troops replaced the Chinese in Tonking. • French - Viet Minh clashes led to the French cruiser Suffren bombarding Haiphong. • In 1947, the French occupied Viet Bac in the north and formed alliances with Hoa Hao and Cao Dai in the south. • In 1949, the French announced the formation of the Republic of Vietnam as an associate state. The U.K. and U.S. recognized it. The USSR & China recognized the DRV.
Dien Bien Phu • Would you have believed that these two men could have defeated the French army? • Neither did General Henri Navarre. He conceived of Dien Bien Phu as forward base, to be supplied by air, from which to disrupt Viet Minh operations in the north and interdict movement in and out of Laos. He had been a NATO commander and knew little about the Vietnam. Giap & Ho Chi MInh
Dien Bien Phu (Cont’d) • On November 20, 1954, French paratroopers occupied Dien Bien Phu. 16,000 troops were eventually amassed, 3,600 of which were Vietnamese & Tai. • Giap deployed a force 50,000 and 200 artillery plus 37 mm & 50 cal. antiaircraft guns over 3 months. • The battle lasted 56 days and cost the Vietnamese 8-10,000 killed. The casualties forced a change in tactics from assault to trenching and mining.
Dien Bien Phu (Cont’d) • French success depended on maintaining an air bridge from Haiphong to Dien Bien Phu. • Vietnamese anti aircraft fire effectively closed the airfield and made daylight airdrops prohibitive. • CAT provided C-119 and A-26 air support. • French resistance ended on May 7. There were 11,721 French prisoners; 4, 436 were wounded. In all, 3, 290 lived..
French and U.S. Air Support Douglas A-26 Intruder Fairchild C-119 Boxcar Douglas C-47 Dakota
Geneva Accords (1954) • Peace talks began the day after Dien Bien Phu fell on May 8. A cease-fire and a final declaration resulted. • The 17th parallel was established as a provisional line of demarcation with a DMZ. All French and DRV forces were to withdraw to their side of the line. Civilians were free to move between zones for 300 days. • The final declaration called for elections in July 1956. The state of (South) Vietnam and the U.S. refused to agree to the elections and stated their reservations. • The DRV compromised due to Russian and Chinese pressure and fear of U.S. involvement.
S.E.A.T.O. • John Foster Dulles created the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) in 1954 to defend South Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos as protocol countries. • The U.S. feared the domino effect, i.e., if Vietnam fell to Communism, all of Southeast Asia would fall eventually. • The member nations were Pakistan, Thailand, the Philippines, the U.S., the U.K., France. Australia and New Zealand.