behavioral theorists n.
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BEHAVIORAL THEORISTS

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BEHAVIORAL THEORISTS

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  1. BEHAVIORAL THEORISTS • IVAN PAVLOV • B.F. SKINNER • A MAJOR PREMISE AND ORIENTATION BEHIND BEHAVIORISM IS THAT PSYCHOLOGY SHOULD STUDY ONLY OBSERVABLE BEHAVIOR

  2. IVAN PAVLOV • RUSSIAN PHYSIOLOGIST • HE STUDIED THE IMPORTANCE OF SALIVA IN THE DIGESTIVE PROCESS OF DOGS

  3. PSYCHIC REFLEXES • DOGS RESTRAINED IN HARNESS • COLLECTED SALIVA • HE PAIRED MEAT POWDER WITH DIFFERENT STIMULI

  4. IMPLICATIONS OF PAVLOV’S WORK • CLASSICAL CONDITIONING PLAYS A KEY ROLE IN SHAPING EMOTIONAL RESPONSES LIKE FEAR, ANXIETY, AND PHOBIAS • USED IN ADVERTISING

  5. B.F. SKINNER • A STRICT BEHAVIORIST • HE DID NOT BELIEVE IN INTERNAL MENTAL STATES • THE SKINNER BOX & OPERANT CONDITIONING

  6. SKINNER’S THEORY • BEHAVIOR IS INFLUENCED BY REWARDS AND PUNSHMENTS • HE TRAINED RATS TO RESPOND TO LIGHTS AND SOUNDS • REINFORCEMENT

  7. APPLICATION OF SKINNER’S WORK • USED IN PRISONS AND MENTAL HOSPITALS • REINFORCERS ARE USED TO PRODUCE POSITIVE BEHAVIORS • TOKEN ECONOMIES SHAPE BEHAVIOR

  8. THE HUMANISTIC APPROACH MASLOW & ROGERS

  9. ABRAHAM MASLOW • HUMANISTS BELIEVED THAT PSYCHOANALYSIS AND BEHAVIOR-ISM ARE “DEHUMANIZING” • EMPHASIS ON UNIQUENESS • POSITIVE, OPTIMISTIC

  10. HUMANS HAVE MANY NEEDS • PEOPLE HAVE MANY NEEDS THAT COMPETE • BIOLOGICAL MOTIVES • SOCIAL MOTIVES • HUMAN NEEDS ARE ORGANIZED IN A HIERARCHY

  11. MASLOW’S HIERARCHY • THE NEEDS AT THE BOTTOM ARE THE MOST BASIC (HUNGER) • THE NEXT LEVEL=SAFETY NEEDS • NEXT= BELONGING AND LOVE

  12. PYRAMID CONTINUED • ESTEEM NEEDS • COGNITIVE NEEDS • AESTHETIC NEEDS • SELF-ACTUALIZED

  13. APPLICATIONS OF MASLOW’S WORK • IN THE FIELD OF BUSINESS • IN THE ARTS AND HUMANITIES • CRITICISMS

  14. CARL ROGERS • CLIENT-CENTERED THERAPY • CCT PROVIDES A SUPPORTIVE ENVIRONMENT • IN CCT, THE CLIENT DETERMINES THE PACE & DIRECTION OF THERAPY

  15. WHAT CAUSES ANXIETY? • ANXIETY IS CAUSED BY INCONSISTENCY BETWEEN A PERSON’S SELF-CONCEPT AND REALITY. • HOW YOU PERCEIVE YOURSELF

  16. DO WE NEED CONSTANT APPROVAL FROM OTHERS? • ROGERS BELIEVED THIS WAS THE ROOT CAUSE OF CLIENTS' PROBLEMS • THE CLIENT NEEDS TO DEVELOP INSIGHT • YOU CAN’T ALWAYS PLEASE OTHERS

  17. THE THERAPEUTIC CLIMATE • THE PROCESS OF THERAPY IS LESS RELEVANT THAN THE CLIMATE OF THE THERAPY • THERAPY’S ROLE

  18. QUALITIES OF A GOOD THERAPIST • GENUINENESS • UNCONDITIONAL POSITIVE REGARD • EMPATHY

  19. THE THERAPEUTIC PROCESS • THE THERAPIST PROVIDES VERY LITTLE GUIDANCE • THE THERAPIST KEEPS ADVICE TO A MINIMUM • THERAPIST PROVIDES FEEDBACK

  20. THE COGNITIVE APPROACH • HUMAN BEHAVIOR CANNOT BE FULLY UNDERSTOOD WITHOUT EXAMINING HOW PEOPLE ACQUIRE, STORE, AND PROCESS INFORMATION • ELLIS & PIAGET WERE INFLUENTIAL COGNITIVE THINKERS

  21. JEAN PIAGET • CHILD PSYCHOLOGIST • HE FOUND ANSWERS TO HUMAN BEHAVIOR BY STUDYING CHILDREN • INFLUENTIAL IN SCHOOL REFORM

  22. HIS VIEW OF CHILDREN • CHILDREN ARE NOT “BLANK SLATES” OR “EMPTY VESSELS” • CHILDREN INVENT THEIR OWN LOGIC • OBSERVATION OF CHILDREN’S MINDS

  23. LESSONS PIAGET LEARNED FROM CHILDREN • CHILDREN TAKING IQ TESTS MADE SIMILAR ERRORS • KNOWLEDGE IS DISCOVERED BY OBSERVING A CHILD’S MIND • KNOWLEDGE BUILDS AS KIDS GROW

  24. AN EXPERIMENT • THE PRINCIPLE OF CONSERVATION (AGES 5–7) • CHILDREN UNDER AGE 5 ARE EGOCENTRIC • BY AGE 7 OBJECT PERMANENCE IS RECOGNIZED

  25. STAGE 1: SENSORIMOTOR • SIMPLE MOTOR RESPONSES TO SENSORY STIMULI; NO CONCEPTION OF OBJECT PERMANENCE • USE OF SCHEMAS

  26. STAGE 2: PREOPERATIONAL • AGES 1 ½–7 • EXHIBITS EGOCENTRIC THINKING • LACKS CONCEPT OF CONSERVA-TION • USES SYMBOLS, WORDS, MENTAL IMAGES

  27. STAGE 3: CONCRETE OPERATIONS • AGES 7–11 • BEGINS TO UNDERSTAND THE CONCEPT OF CONSERVATION • STILL HAS SOME TROUBLE WITH ABSTRACT IDEAS • CLASSIFICATION

  28. STAGE 4: FORMAL OPERATIONS • AGES 11–ADULT • UNDERSTANDS ABSTRACT IDEAS AND HYPOTHETICAL SITUATIONS • CAPABLE OF LOGICAL THINKING • NERVOUS SYSTEM