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Vietnam

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Vietnam

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  1. Vietnam Chapter 21

  2. -Vietnam was a colony of France until 1954. • -Originally called Indochina. • -Vietnam won its independence from France with a revolution led by General Ho Chi Minh. • -Divided into N. and S. Vietnam at Geneva Conference. • -North was Communist led by Ho Chi Minh. • -South was Democratic and led by Ngo Dinh Diem. • -Both were supposed to unite under one leader. • -Election never happens and begins the conflict between both sides.

  3. Ho Chi Minh Diem

  4. Dividing Line 17th Parallel

  5. Kennedy and Vietnam • -JFK wanted to stop the spread of Communism. • -Sends military advisors to aid S. Vietnam. • -By 1963, there were 16,000 advisors in S. Vietnam. • -Kennedy realized Diem was unpopular and could not win war against Ho Chi Minh. • -JFK helps overthrow Diem. • -Diem is later assassinated. • -U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara suggests to JFK that the U.S. pull out of Vietnam. • -Before JFK can make a decision, he is assassinated.

  6. LBJ and Vietnam • -Johnson wanted to win Vietnam at any costs. • -N. Vietnam and Communists were winning support in the South. • -Communist guerilla fighters in S. Vietnam were called Viet-Cong.

  7. Gulf of Tonkin Incident • -August 1964, a U.S. Navy Destroyer is torpedoed off the coast of N. Vietnam in the Gulf of Tonkin. • -Ship is in international waters. • -Johnson uses incident to push U.S. further into war. • -On August 7th, 1964 Congress passes the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution. Gives Johnson complete control over U.S. involvement in Vietnam. • -No declaration of war needed. • -After winning the 1964 election, LBJ increases U.S. involvement. • -Begins to draft more men. • -By 1965, the number of people drafted rises four times.

  8. Battle of Pleiku • -Feb. 1965, the Viet Cong kill 8 American soldiers in S. Vietnam. • -126 are wounded. • -U.S. Commander in Vietnam, General William Westmoreland, gets more draftees b/c of Pleiku. • -184,000 more Americans are drafted. • -LBJ also orders U.S. to bomb N. Vietnam. • -By the end of 1968, 536,000 U.S. troops are in S. Vietnam.

  9. Westmoreland

  10. Battlefield in Vietnam • -Viet Cong had a major advantages over U.S. • 1. Jungle Fighting • 2. Allies in Cambodia and Laos • 3. Support from locals • -Made the U.S. military superiority useless. • -S. Vietnamese also did not help us. • -Made it more difficult. • -Fighting in jungles was extremely hard. • 1. Leeches • 2. Fever • 3. Heat • 4. Rain • 5. Infections

  11. Viet Cong Weaponry • -B/c the U.S. had better weapons and military, the Viet Cong used sneak attacks against U.S. • 1. Booby Traps • 2. Underground Tunnels • 3. Animal Snares • 4. Punji Stakes • -Holes filled with sharp, poisoned tipped spikes. • 5. Land Mines and Bouncing Betty’s

  12. Punji Stakes

  13. Toe Popper

  14. Bouncing Betty

  15. Tunnel Entrance

  16. -U.S. troops went weeks without seeing Viet Cong. • -Sometimes troops were attacked by women and children who had bombs strapped to their bodies. • -Vietnamese often were helping the U.S. soldiers one day and the Viet Cong the next. • -B/c the U.S. could not tell who was friend or foe, civilians were often massacred. • -One major way civilians were injured was with new type of warfare; • -Saturation Bombing • -Dropping a large number of bombs over an area

  17. Tet Offensive • -January 30, 1968 was the Vietnamese New Year. • -Viet Cong began a massive offensive. • -Two major places were attacked. • 1. Saigon • -Capitol of S. Vietnam • -Viet Cong attack U.S. embassy • -Lasts until March. • 2. Khe Sanh • American base near boarder • Battle lasts until April. • Viet Cong lose both battles, but prove they can attack any part of U.S. troops or invade any parts of S. Vietnam. • Shows U.S. home front 1st horrors of Vietnam.

  18. Chemical Warfare • -U.S. uses 2 major chemicals in Vietnam. • 1. Agent Orange • -Used in Jungles by pilots to kill leaves and brush. • -Helped to expose V.C. hiding places. • -Later discovered to cause huge health and mental problems in U.S. troops who were exposed. • 2. Napalm • -Jelly-like substance dropped from planes. • -Burned uncontrollably. • -If hit human skin, would burn off flesh.

  19. Agent Orange Agent Orange being sprayed

  20. Napalm • Modern Napalm Attack • Napalm Scene

  21. My Lai Massacre • -1968 • -U.S. troops told village of My Lai was hiding 250 V.C. troops. • -Troops only found women and children. • -Lieutenant William Calley Jr. ordered them to be killed anyway. • -175 were killed in village. • -Calley sentenced to life in prison. • -President Nixon later releases him. • -American people felt he was a scapegoat for Generals who ordered the village wiped out. • -V.C. just as brutal towards U.S. troops and Vietnamese who supported U.S. • -In village of Hue, V.C. killed 5,000 civilians.

  22. My Lai Massacre

  23. Lt. William Calley Jr. Lt. William Calley Jr.

  24. Student Protests • -June 1971, The NY Times publishes the Pentagon Papers. • -Show that govt. lied to the American people about the Vietnam War. • -Helps create an even bigger anti-war movement in the U.S. • -Movement led mostly by students. • -One of the major anti-war groups was S.D.S. • -Students for a Democratic Society.

  25. Anti-War Violence • -Students and police/Govt. begin clashing in 1964. • 1. Berkley • -University of California at Berkley students are arrested for passing out anti-war fliers. • -There was no freedom of speech on college campuses at the time. • -Berkley becomes the center of the radical antiwar-movement.

  26. 2. Teach-Ins • -University of Michigan 1965. • -Professors planned a one day strike against the war in Vietnam. • -Govt. threatens to fire professors if they strike. • -Instead, professors teach special night classes about the war. • -Thousands show up. • -Spreads to other universities.

  27. Selective Service & The Draft • -1951 act said all men 18-26 could be drafted. • -Early 1960’s most did not fight being drafted. • -Went to Vietnam as Conscientious Objectors. • -Opposed to fighting in war on moral or religious reasons. • -1965, LBJ doubles # of people to be drafted. • -By 1966-67, Anti-war movement begins.

  28. Deferments • -Most were against the unfair Deferments. • -Official postponements of being drafted. • -Deferments usually went to rich or politically connected families. • -Minorities also upset about draft status b/c they were forced to fight for a country that gave them no rights. • -Major protests in Chicago, NYC, and D.C. • -Felt LBJ reason America’s youth was being killed. • -“Hey, Hey LBJ, how many babies you kill today?”

  29. Pro War Stance • -Early in the war, the majority of Americans were pro-war. • -Their slogans were “My Country Right or Wrong” &”Love It or Leave It.” • -Another reason for war support was that many anti-war protests were violent. • 1. Columbia University • -Students take over University offices and fight with police in April 1968. • 2. The Weathermen • -Chicago SDS fought police w/ pipes and clubs. • -Wanted to overthrow capitalism and stop draft.

  30. Counter Culture • -Youth of 1960’s who looked for their own identity. • -Took their idea from Beatniks & went against society’s norms. • -“Hippies” did all they could to look different. • -Mini skirts, long hair, loose clothing, etc.

  31. Sexual Revolution • -New views on sex began in the 1960’s. • -More open discussion of sex in media and society. • -2 major books during sexual revolution. • 1. Sex and the Single Girl • -Helen Gurley Brown • 2. Human Sexual Response • -William Masters and Virginia Johnson • -Traditional roles (Marriage) were rejected.

  32. Drugs • -Psychedelic drugs gained huge popularity in the 1960’s. • -Marijuana and LSD were 2 major drugs. • -Overdoses were common. {Janis Joplin, Jim Morrison, Hendrix}

  33. Janis Joplin Jimi Hendrix Jim Morrison

  34. Music • -New Kind of music begins in 1960’s • -Rolling Stones, Beatles, Hendrix, Joplin, Doors, Grateful Dead. • -Centers around Haight-Ashbury area of San Francisco • -2 major concerts in late 1960’s • 1. Woodstock • -August 1969 • -400,000 show up for concert in NY • -Largest and most memorable music event. • 2. Altamont • -Dec. 1969 • -Rolling Stones have free concert for 300,000. • -Hire Hell’s Angels Biker gang as security. • -Ends in violence. 4 people die.

  35. Vietnamization • -1967 Robert McNamara tells LBJ to end war in Vietnam. • -LBJ ignores his request and anti-war sentiment grows. • -Finally on March 31, 1968 LBJ announces that he will not run for re-election. • -Nixon wins 1968 election after Dem. Candidate Robert Kennedy is killed • -One month later, Paris Peace Talks begin. • -Nixon creates policy called Vietnamization. • Replace U.S. troops with S. Vietnamese troops.

  36. Anti War Movement’s Rebirth • Nixon ignores strategy to pull out of Vietnam. • -Kept bombing schedule. • -Also began to bomb Cambodia. • -Restarts anti-war protests on college campuses. • 1. Kent State • -Ohio 1970 • -National Guard kills 4 unarmed students • 2. Jackson State • -All black college where 2 are killed by police for protesting war.

  37. U.S. Withdraws • -January 1973 Peace treaty signed. • -4 parts of treaty: • 1. U.S. withdraws in 60 days • 2. All POW’s returned. • 3. No attacks on Cambodia and Laos. • 4. 17th Parallel would divide N&S Vietnam

  38. -April 29, 1975, the last of U.S. troops pull out of Vietnam. • -April 30th, S. Vietnam is overrun and conquered by N. Vietnamese Communists. • Members of the US Embassy in Saigon and remaining US citizens in Vietnam have to be taken out by helicopter. • -Longest and least successful war in U.S. history. • -58,000 American troops killed. • -300,000 wounded. • -Cost of war was $150 Billion. • -1979, veterans begin plans for Vietnam War Memorial. • -Opens in 1982 in Washington D.C.