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The Civil War 1861-1865

The Civil War 1861-1865

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The Civil War 1861-1865

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  1. The Civil War1861-1865

  2. Resource Advantages Union Advantages Confederate Advantages • Population • Industry supported manufacturing • Larger railroad network • Strong leader in Lincoln • Well-organized navy • Set up a blockade • Fighting for their survival: slavery • Strong military leaders like Robert E. Lee • War was fought mainly in the South • Familiar territory and supplies are closer

  3. Strategies Union Confederacy • Keep loyal slave states from seceding by not abolishing slavery (MO, KY, MD, DE) • The Anaconda Plan: • capture capital (Richmond, VA) • control the Mississippi River to cut the Confederacy in half • blockade southern ports • This would squeeze the life out of the Confederacy • Tire the Union • Gain support of Britain and France • Needed cotton from the South • Never got their help

  4. Early Battles of the War • First Battle of Bull Run/Manassas • July 1861 • Confederate victory under Stonewall Jackson • Shocked the North • Union had to replace the Union General with McClellan (who is later replaced) • Battle of Shiloh • April 1862 • an unsuccessful Union attempt to gain control of the Mississippi River

  5. The Monitor vs. The Virginia: both were plated with iron (ironclad) • No clear victor but wooden ships are a thing of the past

  6. Second Battle of Bull Run (1862) • Southern victory led by General Lee, commander of Confederate Army • 18 days later Lee takes his army North, but is intercepted by General George McClellan, General of the US Army

  7. Let’s Review! • Which of the following was a Southern advantage? • Southerners simply had to defend their land • Southern military leaders devised the Anaconda Plan to end the war quickly • The South possessed factories and railroad lines • Which of the following was an element of the Anaconda Plan? • Blockade of Southern ports • Capture the capitol, Washington, DC • Squeeze the life out of the Union • What was revealed by the outcome of the 1st Battle of Bull Run? • The Southern army was well trained • The North would eventually win • The war would not be short • What was the significance of the Battle of Shiloh? • The Confederacy successfully blocked the Union from taking the Mississippi River. • The Union made an unsuccessful attempt to gain control of the Missouri River. • There is no major significance to the Battle of Shiloh.

  8. Antietam (Sept 1862) • The victory necessary for Lincoln to proclaim emancipation • Union General had General Lee’s military plan • The bloodiestsingle day of the Civil War • Lee retreats but loses less soldiers

  9. Emancipation Proclamation, January 1, 1863

  10. African Americans • Emancipation Proclamation: • freed all slaves in states that were still rebelling on Jan 1, 1863 • Did NOT apply to loyal slave states • Lincoln hoped it would lead to Southern states surrendering • Southerners see there will be no negotiations • Gives the war a moral cause • What should the Union do with slaves? • Free them?... Lincoln’s suggestion but must wait until a Union victory…Antietam • Put them to work? • Given the worst jobs

  11. African Americans Fight Bravely • Union started to recruit freed slaves…fighting for their freedom • Gain respect from white men • Sometimes given tedious tasks • If captured by the Confederacy they would be killed • Southern slaves help Union troops as they pass through • Food • Spies • Scouts

  12. Final Turning Points • Generals Ulysses S. Grant and William T. Sherman capture Vicksburg, MS (1863) [Remember Anaconda Plan] • Vital victory for North  control of the Mississippi River • Union could pass through Confederacy • Dominate the South

  13. Battle of Gettysburg (July 1863) • General Lee drove back Union forces in PA • Union took up strong defensive position • After 2 days, Lee unable to break Union lines ordered men to charge at the middle of defense lines • Most soldiers were killed • Confederates retreated to VA • Weakened by death, desertion & hunger • 3 day battle • Bloodiest battle in American history, > 50,000 dead

  14. Coming to an End • Later that year, Gettysburg Address, honoring all those who died in the battle • Election of 1864 – Lincoln wins re-election over McClellan • Sherman’s March to the Sea • Across GA to the Atlantic Coast, 60 miles • Destroyed EVERYTHING in their path • Burned Atlanta • Troops reach sea to re-supply

  15. General Lee knew his army could not continue • April 9, 1865 • Lee surrendered at Appomattox Court House, VA

  16. April 14, 1865 • John Wilkes Booth, southern supporter shot Lincoln at Ford’s Theater, “the south will be avenged” • Lincoln died the next day in the house across from the theater

  17. Soldiers Life • 4 out of 5 Southern men fought • Brother s might fight brothers • Boring and monotonous • Injuries usually led to amputation • Malnutrition was always a problem

  18. Women and the War • Filled the jobs of men while they fought the war • Led to women entering professions that had been off limits • Most women were nurses • Clara Barton will later form the American Red Cross • Start to consider sanitation “Angels of the Battlefield”

  19. Life on the Homefront Union Confederacy • Drop in cotton cultivation hurt industry • Income taxes • Western lands sold extremely cheap • Union started a draft that led to Draft Riots • Copperheads condemned Lincoln for war actions and wanted the war to stop • Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus (holding someone in jail without charging them) to deal with draft dodgers • Lacked the resources to support troops…mainly shoes • Blockade runners were no longer successful • Stopped harvesting cotton and went to food crops to feed troops • Seized/stole Union goods when able • Confederate money is worthless • Could not deal with the economic hardships

  20. Let’s Review! • What is the significance of the Emancipation Proclamation? • It freed ALL slaves regardless of loyalty to the Union. • It had no importance. • It created a moral cause that Lincoln needed to maintain support for the war. • Why was the surrender of Vicksburg a turning point in the Civil War? • It gave the Union control of the Mississippi River and split the Confederacy. • It marked the surrender of the Confederate capital to Union forces. • It was the largest battle ever fought in North America • What did Sherman’s victory in the siege of Atlanta help to ensure? • Jefferson Davis’ reelection • Passage of the 13th Amendment • Lincoln’s reelection • What was the result of Lee’s surrender? • The war ended immediately • The war continued for several months • Jefferson Davis resigned