What in the World??? Can you make the connection
The World at the Outbreak of WWI: Why did Europe and the Neo-Europes dominate
Why was it like this? • Old World vs. New World • Competition of the environments • Ecological Dominance led to Political dominance – “biological pollution and invasives” • Disease, plants and animals Impact of the Columbian Exchange • Ex: potato and WWI
European Dominace • 1500 Europe controlled 9% of world • 1800 – 35% • 1878 – 67% • 1914 – 85%
Why WWI: M.A.I.N • Militarism • Population growth (potato) – built huge armies - needed living space • Alliances • Britain/France/Russia vs. Germany/Austria/Turkey • Imperialism • Economics • Nationalism • New countries upset the balance of power – New Bullies in the complex • especially Germany • National groups want independence and stuff - Balkans – Serbs vs Austria Hungary and pan Slavism Industrial Revolution
Why was Germany so strong? In the years 1911, 1912, and 1913 the German army in time of peace was raised, from 515,000 to 866,000 men. War taxes were raised correspondingly. The government made great purchases abroad of many kinds of military supplies. Quantities of nitrate of soda, for instance, for the manufacture of explosives, were imported from Chile and stored. German manufacturers of chemicals used in munitions were forbidden to export them. Railroads leading to France and Belgium, as well as to Russia, together with their equipment, were improved, so as to be ready for transportation of troops at a moment's notice. The navy was strengthened in corresponding fashion. Austria-Hungary and Turkey, already under the guidance of the Germans according to the Middle-Europe and Berlin-to-Bagdad projects, were making similar improvements. In 1914 the Germans felt that their preparation was complete.
So why didn’t they stop Germany? • While Germany was making all these preparations so openly, she declared that they were for defense only, and other nations did not make themselves ready for the attack that Germany was really planning. Perhaps France alone fully comprehended the situation. Yet her population and resources were much inferior to those of Germany. Likewise Russia's army, though large, was inferior to Germany's army in training, equipment, and effectiveness. All of the nations now allied hoped still that war might be avoided. Consequently they did not prepare for war as completely as Germany did.Among the Great Powers of Europe that entered the war immediately, England had by far the smallest army and it was scattered widely over the earth. She had small supplies of munitions and few factories for making them. Her people had not believed that Germany would provoke a war. But he did have the advantage of a great navy. England's navy was her salvation.
So what started it all? • The event that immediately led to the war occurred in Austria near the Serbian border. On June 28, 1914, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, Archduke Francis Ferdinand, and his wife, were assassinated by Serbian sympathizers. Bad feeling already existed between Austria and Serbia, and this deed naturally made it worse. • Feeling that they were fully ready for war, the Central Powers now saw the excuse for beginning it. As punishment for the murder of the Archduke, Austria, with the full support of Germany, made demands on Serbia that were altogether too humiliating for acceptance. Then, when Serbia rejected them, war was declared.
All Resulted in a War but what made this such a unique war and truly the first World war and total war • Deadlock in the trenches • Led to the development of a totally different type of war – a unique war, a total war …. WORLD WAR I
Gatling Gun New Type of Modern and Technologically Advanced Warfare
Airplanes of WWI During WW1, planes were armed with machine guns and weren’t very accurate or effective, but everybody used them. Towards the end of the war they built bomber planes that could hold two to three bombs each. So, to have any effect they had to build a lot of these types of planes.
Mustard Gas Used by Saddam Hussein on his own people in 1984
Total War By the nineteenth century, warfare had evolved into total war, involving resources and populations of entire nations. No longer were wars fought almost exclusively by trained soldiers or hired mercenaries; it came to involve entire populations, including both citizen soldiers and ordinary citizens. World War One gave birth to total war in the industrial age when huge armies of soldiers faced each other across battlefields that had been made horribly lethal by technological advances in weaponry. Shortly after the war began, the nations mobilized over 65 million troops. In spite of the huge armies, both sides expected a quick end to the war, and both sides went on the offensive. However, the war quickly settled into one of tactical deadlock in the trenches.
Enter America • America entered World War One on April 6th, 1917. Up to that date, America had tried to keep out of World War One – though she had traded with nations involved in the war – but unrestricted submarine warfare, introduced by the Germans on January 9th, 1917, was the primary issue that caused Woodrow Wilson to ask Congress to declare war on Germany on April 2nd. Four days later, America joined World War One on the side of the Allies.
THE ZIMMERMANN NOTEReleased March 1, 1917 This blundering effort to get Mexico into World War I on the German side backfired when British intelligence intercepted, decoded and forwarded it to the American government. It is safe to call it the last straw for President Wilson, who mentioned it in his war message to Congress in April, 1917. Berlin, January 19, 1917 On the first of February we intend to begin submarine warfare unrestricted. In spite of this it is our intention to keep neutral the United States of America. If this attempt is not successful we propose an alliance on the following basis with Mexico: That we shall make war together and together make peace. We shall give general financial support, and it is understood that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona. The details are left for your settlement. You are instructed to inform the President of Mexico of the above in the greatest confidence as soon as it is certain there will be an outbreak of war with the United States, and we suggest that the President of Mexico on his own initiative should communicate with Japan suggesting adherence at once to this plan; at the same time offer to mediate between Germany and Japan. Please call to the attention of the President of Mexico that the employment of ruthless submarine warfare now promises to compel England to make peace in a few months.
The main terms of the Versailles Treaty were: (1) the surrender of all German colonies as League of Nations mandates; (2) the return of Alsace-Lorraine to France; (3) cession of Eupen-Malmedy to Belgium, Memel to Lithuania, the Hultschin district to Czechoslovakia, (4) Poznania, parts of East Prussia and Upper Silesia to Poland;(5) Danzig to become a free city; (6) plebiscites to be held in northern Schleswig to settle the Danish-German frontier; (7) occupation and special status for the Saar under French control; (8) demilitarization and a fifteen-year occupation of the Rhineland; (9) German reparations of £6,600 million; (10) a ban on the union of Germany and Austria; (11) an acceptance of Germany's guilt in causing the war; (11) provision for the trial of the former Kaiser and other war leaders; (12) limitation of Germany's army to 100,000 men with no conscription, no tanks, no heavy artillery, no poison-gas supplies, no aircraft and no airships; (13) the limitation of the German Navy to vessels under 100,000 tons, with no submarines; Germany signed the Versailles Treaty under protest. The USA Congress refused to ratify the treaty. Many people in France and Britain were angry that there was no trial of the Kaiser or the other war leaders.
The outcome of WWI • Casualties?? • Who won?? • The “Rocky” victory • A very fragile peace • Web site stats
World War One Death Statistics Russia : 1,700,000France : 1,357,800British Empire : 908,371Italy : 650,000United States : 126,000Japan : 300Romania : 335,706Serbia : 45,000Belgium : 13,716Greece : 5,000Portugal : 7,222Montenegro : 50,000Germany : 1,773,700Austria-Hungary : 1,200,000Turkey : 325,000
World War One Wounded Russia : 4,950,000France : 4,266,000British Empire : 2,090,212Italy : 947,000United States : 234,300Japan : 907Romania : 120,000Serbia : 133,148Belgium : 44,686Greece : 21,000Portugal : 13,751Montenegro : 10,000Germany : 4,216,058Austria-Hungary : 3,620,000Turkey : 400,000
The 1918-19 influenza epidemic killed at least 40 million people worldwide and 675,000 people in the United States, far exceeding the combat deaths experienced by the US in the two World Wars, Korea, and Vietnam combined. Besides its extraordinary virulence, the 1918-19 epidemic was also unique in that a disproportionate number of its victims were men and women ages 15 and 44, leading to extremely high death rates in the prime working ages.
Effects/Impact/Legacy of WWI • ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? • ?????????? • ?
Effects/Impact/Legacy • Physical • Psychological/emotional-poems • Social
Hyperinflation In January, 1921, there were 64 marks to the dollar. By November, 1923 this had changed to 4,200,000,000,000 marks to the dollar
HARARE, Zimbabwe, April 25 How bad is inflation in Zimbabwe? Well, consider this: at a supermarket near the center of this tatterdemalion capital, toilet paper costs $417. No, not per roll. Four hundred seventeen Zimbabwean dollars is the value of a single two-ply sheet. A roll costs $145,750 — in American currency, about 69 cents. The price of toilet paper, like everything else here, soars almost daily, spawning jokes about an impending better use for Zimbabwe's $500 bill, now the smallest in circulation. But what is happening is no laughing matter. For untold numbers of Zimbabweans, toilet paper — and bread, margarine, meat, have become unimaginable luxuries. All are casualties of the hyperinflation that is roaring toward 1,000 percent a year, a rate usually seen only in war zones. Zimbabwe's inflation is hardly history's worst — in Weimar Germany in 1923, prices quadrupled each month, compared with doubling about once every three or four months in Zimbabwe. That said, experts agree that Zimbabwe's inflation is currently the world's highest, and has been for some time.
Germany in the 1920's suffered from hyper-inflation when money became almost worthless. At its worst there were 420,000,000,000 German Marks to the American Dollar. Can you imagine four hundred and twenty billion Marks to the Dollar. A suitcase full of money would buy a pair of shoelaces. The price of a meal could double in the short time between ordering and being served. It was much cheaper for children to play with a million Marks than with toys.
The end of the war gave the allies confidence and nationalists rallied behind their government In Germany the economy collapsed and the weak government demoralized the people. By the 30’s Germany’s people were hopeless and disillusioned and wished for the Germany that there was before Nationalism
Land Unification of Greater Germany (Austria + Germany) • + expansion • Anti-Versailles - abrogation of the Treaty. • Land and territory - lebensraum. • Only a "member of the race" can be a citizen. • Anti-semitism - No Jew can be a member of the race. • Anti-foreigner - only citizens can live in Germany. • No immigration - ref. to Jews fleeing pograms. • Everyone must work. • Abolition of unearned income - "no rent-slavery". • Nationalisation of industry • Divison of profits • Extension of old age welfare. • Land reform • Death to all criminals • German law, not Roman law (anti- French Rev.) • Education to teach "the German Way" • Education of gifted children • Protection of mother and child by outlawing child labour. • Encouraging gymnastics and swimming • Formation a national army. • Duty of the state to provide for its volk. • Duty of individuals to the state Adolf Hitler during WWI
"Everything for the state, nothing outside the state, nothing against the state.“ - Mussolini
Effects/Impact/Legacy • Physical • Incredible death and wounded toll • Destroyed Infrastructure • Economy was shattered • Psychological/emotional • Exhaustion • Disillusionment • Social • New forms of government • Isolationism • Anger over a war and punishment the empires started
WWI A Major Turning Point in 20th Century • Brought an end to competition among colonial powers • New style of warfare as total slaughter • Destroyed a generation of young European men • Influenced the start of Communist Russia • Led to WWII