VERBALS Unit 1: Infinitives, Participles, and Gerunds ELACC8L1a: Explain the function of verbals (gerunds, participles, infinitives) in general and their function in particular sentences.
Is it a VERB or a VERBAL? • Telling the difference between a verb and a verbal is not done by looking only at the word itself. • You have to see how the word is being used. • In both cases, the word looks like a verb, but if it’s used as something other than a verb…it’s a VERBAL.
Is it a VERB or a VERBAL? • Examples: • Waxed • Flowing • Playing • Sleeping • These can be verbs or verbals depending upon how they are used in the sentence.
Is it a VERB or a VERBAL? • Examples: • Our butler waxed the floors. • The waxed floors were slippery and dangerous. • In the first sentence, the word is being used as a verb to tell what action is being done. • In the other one, the word still looks like a verb, but it is being used as an adjective.
Is it a VERB or a VERBAL? • Examples: • Water was flowing over the rocks in the stream. • Flowing water carries a great deal of potential energy. • The same thing is true here as in the other example. • The second sentences shows the verb working as an adjective instead of a verb.
Basic Information on Verbals • Verbals are verb forms (words that look like verbs or could be verbs in other sentences) that are used as one of the following: • Noun • Adjective • Adverb • A verbal can never be the verb of the sentence.
Basic Information on Verbals • There are three different kinds of verbals: • Infinitive • Participle • Gerund • Each verbal has a specific purpose and use in a sentence.
Infinitives • An infinitive is a verb form that is proceeded by the word “to.” • To play • To sleep • To be seen • To steal • To have been stolen • To speak
Infinitives • In some sentences (following certain verbs), the “sign of the infinitive” (the word “to) is omitted. • This is done for clarity. • Help him (to) move the sofa. • Watch the fish (to) snap at the hook. • Can you feel the floor (to) move?
Infinitives • The verbs which call for an omitted “to” are: • See • Hear • Feel • Help • Let • Make • Watch
Infinitives • An infinitive has three possible functions: • As a noun • As an adjective • As an adverb • Knowing where an infinitive should go helps make the structure of the sentence more clear.
Infinitives • As a noun: • I hate to go. (direct object) • To steal is a crime. (subject) • As an adjective: • It’s time to go. (modify time) • There are jobs to be done (modify jobs) • As an adverb: • He always plays to win. (modify plays)
Infinitives • Infinitives can also have modifiers or complements. • This can be done because there is a verb form in the infinitive that (if being used as a verb in another sentence) could take a complement such as an indirect or direct object or a predicate complement.
Infinitives • Be careful not to create “split” infinitives. • This is done when an adverb is placed between the “to” and the verb form. • To boldly go…. • To strenuously object… • To always comply… • It is bad structure for this to be formed.
Infinitive Phrase • Consists of an infinitive + any modifiers or complements the infinitive has. • The entire phrase may be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb.
Infinitive Phrase Examples: -We are here to learn Language Arts. The infinitive phrase answers “Why am I here?” Adverb Infinitive Phrase -I love to eat ice cream. The nounin the infinitive phrase is ice cream which is the direct object (The what). -Goobers, popcorn, and Gummy Bears are good snacks to buy at the movie theater. The infinitive phrase is an adjective modifyingsnacks.
Participles • Verb forms that are used as adjectives are called participles. • They will have two forms: • Present (ending in “-ing”) • Past (ending in “-ed” or “-en”) • These contain action, but they are not used as verbs in the sentence.
Participles • Examples: • Smoking gun • Snoring spouse • Broken window • Elected official • Streaming video • Buzzing noise • Winning touchdown • Walking track
Participles • Participles can appear in several places in the sentence, but they are most commonly found describing/modifying the subject. • Participle phrases can also be made from single participles. • Running along the path
Participles • Most participle phrases will have commas setting them off. This is especially true when they open a sentence and modify the subject. • Running at full speed, the back raced twenty yards for a score. • Crying loudly, the baby wanted some attention.
Participial Phrase • Consists of a participle +any modifiers or complements the participle has. • The entire phrase is used as an adjective. Example: • Jack, walking down the road, was looking at the lake. The participle is walking, as it ends in ing and is describing Jack.
Gerunds • A gerund looks a lot like a participle because it ends in “-ing.” • However, the gerund is going to be used as a noun. • Gerunds answers the question "what.“ • Find the verb and ask yourself "what." • Gerunds will show up as subjects, direct or indirect objects or objects of prepositions.
Gerunds • Examples: • Chewing gum in class is not allowed. (subject) • I liked eating at the new restaurant. (direct object) • Without running very hard I won the race. (indirect object)
Gerund Phrase • Consists of a gerund + any modifiers or complements the gerund has. • The entire phrase is used as a noun. • Because a gerund is a verb form, it may be modified by an adverb or an adverb phrase + may have a complement (usually a direct object). • Also, since a gerund functions as a noun, it may be modified by an adjective or an adjective phrase.
Gerund Phrase Examples: -Learning about Language Arts is fun. Learning is the gerund. -Having a part-time job may interfere with your schoolwork. The gerund phrase is the subject + job is the direct object. -The students heard the loud ringing of the fire alarm. The gerund phrase is the direct object of the verb heard + gerund is ringing. -We crossed the stream by stepping carefully from stone to stone. The gerund phrase is the object of the preposition by. The adverb carefully and the adverb phrases from stone and to stone modify the gerund stepping.