Participle • Looks like a verb but acts as an adjective • Usually ends in –ed or –ing unless an irregular verb, such as know, which would not be knowed but would be known • The participial phrase would be all words (including prepositional phrases) related to the participle.
Examples of Participial Phrases • Running to the classroom Jill fell down in the hall. • Running to the classroom,Jill fell down in the hall. • Mary slipping on a banana hit her head. • Mary, slipping on a banana, hit her head. • I gave the class tired from the test a break. • I gave the class, tired from the test, a break.
More Examples of Participial Phrases • Known for his humor Tom is thinking about becoming a comedian. • Known for his humor,Tom is thinking about becoming a comedian. • Many papers were submitted, but the paper written in pencil was unacceptable. • Many papers were submitted, but the paper written in pencil was unacceptable. • WHY NO COMMAS?
Infinitives • Must begin with to • To + any verb • Not to be confused with the preposition to or too or two • To run, to walk, to jump, to talk, to sleep, etc. • Can act as an adjective, an adverb, or a noun • May be the subject, direct object, or the predicate nominative of a sentence • NEVER split infinitives • To wildly run – to run wildly
Infinitive Phrases • You need to go to sleep. • You need to go to sleep. DIRECT OBJECT • “To be or not to be” is a famous quote. • “To be or not to be” is a famous quote. SUBJECT • She went to the store to buy groceries. • She went to the store to buy groceries. ADVERB • He is to call me first thing. • He is to call me first thing. PREDICATE NOMINATIVE
Gerund • Must end in –ing • Acts as noun • Anywhere a noun can be a gerund can be • NOT to be confused with actual VERBS and/or participles • Baking lessons are tonight. Baking is fun. • Baking describes lessons in the first sentence, so it is an adjective (participle) • Baking is the subject in the second sentence; it is a THING that can be done, so it is a gerund.
Gerund Phrases • We love sleeping in on rainy days. • We love sleeping in on rainy days. DIRECT OBJECT • She was given time for arranging the schedule. • She was given time (for arranging the schedule). OBJECT OF A PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE • Cooking in the kitchen is fun. • Cooking in the kitchen is fun. SUBJECT
Dangling Participles • She was talking on the phone standing on the balcony. • Standing on the balcony, she was talking on the phone. • Grown in Georgia, the customers chose the freshest vegetables. • The customers chose the freshest vegetablesgrown in Georgia. • Sweetened with sugar, the cook poured the coffee. • The cook poured the coffeesweetened with sugar. • Hurt by the rock, the truck sped by the man. • The truck sped by the manhurt by the rock. PLACE PARTICIPIAL PHRASE AS CLOSE TO THE WORD DESCRIBED AS POSSIBLE!
Misplaced Modifiers • I played with my pet dog in my Sunday suit. • I played in my Sunday suit with my pet dog. • An incredible product, the stain remover’s superior power could remove any stain. • An incredible product, the stain remover had superior power to remove any stain. • The vegetables at the produce stand grown in Mississippi were the freshest. • At the produce stand, the vegetables grown in Mississippi were the freshest.
More Misplaced Modifiers • To get an academic scholarship, good grades are critical. • To get an academic scholarship, one must make good grades. • COMMON MISPLACED ADVERBS: ONLY, ALMOST, JUST, EVEN, MERELY, AND SCARCELY • Just the boys thanked the coach. • The boys just thanked the coach. • The boys thanked just the coach. • She only washed some of her clothes. • She washed only some of her clothes.