Verbals Verbals are words that look like verbs, but act like something else (nouns, adjectives, or adverbs)
Three Types of Verbals • Gerunds • Participles • Infinitives
Verbal #1: Gerunds • Gerunds are words that look like verbs but act like NOUNS and end in ING. • How do they function? • Subject:Reading is fun! • Predicate Noun (Nominative): My favorite hobby is reading. • Direct Object: I love reading! • Indirect Object: I gave reading a try. • Object of the Preposition: I am talking about reading.
NOTE: • An –ing word must be preceded by a helping verb in order to be a verb • EXAMPLE: • The freshmen taking the test. • The freshmen have been taking the test.
NOTE: • A noun that follows a gerund and answers the question who or what is the OBJECT OF THE GERUND! • He made a complaint by writing a letter to the president. • Writing a what? • A letter!! (OG)
Try it out! • Hiking is an excellent way to stay in good shape. • I love stomping in puddles. • My goal is graduating from high school and attending college. • I gave swimming my best effort. • I was thinking about traveling over the summer.
Using Gerunds in Your Writing • Use gerunds to emphasize what has occurred rather than who is acting • EXAMPLE: • I like softball. It is a lot of fun. I have fun with my friends on the team. • Playing softball is fun. My teammates have become some of my good friends.
Gerund phrases • Gerunds can be attached to prepositional phrases or other words to form phrases. • Reading a book is food for the brain. • Climbing a tree can be fun but dangerous. • Running through the mall might get you kicked out. • Singing in the shower is sometimes a very bad habit.
Write your own • Gerund phrase as a subject • Gerund phrase as a predicate nominative • Gerund phrase as a direct object
Participles and participial phrases Participles are verbals Participles look like verbs, but act like ADJECTIVES
End in ING Frightening Entertaining Usually end in ED Frightened Entertained Sometimes end in T or EN Burst Written Present and Past Participles
Don't mistake a gerund phrase for a present participle phrase. • Gerund and present participle phrases are easy to confuse because they both begin with an ing word. • The difference is that a gerund phrase will always function as a noun while a present participle phrase describes another word in the sentence.
Examples • Jamming too much clothing into a washing machine will result in disaster. • Jamming too much clothing into a washing machine= gerund phrase, the subject of the verb will result.
Examples • Jamming too much clothing into the washing machine, Aamir saved $1.25. • Jamming too much clothing into the washing machine= present participle phrase describing Aamir.
Present participle Limping, the hiker favored his aching ankle. Limping describes hiker Aching describes ankle Past participle Confused, Nan returned to her interrupted work. Confused describes Nan Interrupted describes work Examples
More examples • Jessica’s shining eyes betrayed her excitement. • The shattered window needs replacement. • The beating heart fascinated Billy. • The lost boys screamed in the night. • The policeman found the stolen car.
The dog is snarling at the plumber. The singers delighted their audience. The snarling dog attacked the plumber. Delighted, the audience applauded. Verb or participle?
Verb, participle or gerund? • Do we have any wrapping paper left? • The detective was wrapping up the case. • Wrapping the gifts took longer than expected.
Try it out! • Think of a verb which can be used as a verb, a participle, and a gerund. • Write three sentences: • Verb • Participle • Gerund
Infinitivesanother verbal! To + a Verb
Preposition or Infinitive? • At the outdoor market, my grandmother likes to bargain. • Would you try to explain? • Give an explanation to Glen. • To believe took considerable faith. • Lindsey wrote letters to friends.
Infinitive or preposition? • After working so hard, he wanted to rest. • Our trip to China was filled with surprises. • Baxter’s gift to me was too extravagant. • When do you plan to graduate? • On Vicky’s way to town, she had a flat tire.
Infinitives • Infinitives can function as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs • They are the only thing in the English language that can • An infinitive can NEVER be the verb of the sentence
Infinitives as nouns • An infinitive as a noun can function as • The SUBJECT To read is fun! • The P.N. My ambition is to win! • The D.O. I love to read! • The O.P. The parachuter was about to jump. • Appositive You have only one choice, to go.
Infinitive as adjective: Adjectives answer which one or what kind The children showed a willingness to cooperate. What kind of willingness? To cooperate modifies willingness The time to start is now. Which time? To start modifies time Infinitives as modifiers
A little practice • That is the way to live. • Derek has the ability to succeed in business. • The man to hire is that applicant in the dark glasses. • My desire to travel has taken me all over the world. • These are the songs to sing at the concert.
Infinitive as adverb: • Adverbs answer WHY, WHEN, WHERE, HOW, TO WHAT EXTENT • They fought to win. • Why did they fight? • To win modifies fought. • Some people are unable to adjust. • How are they unable? • To adjust modifies unable.
Infinitive Phrases • Infinitives can be expanded into phrases by adding • Adverbs: Jeff’s entire family likes to rise early. • Adverb phrases: To skateon the ice without falling was not too easy for him. • Direct objects: He hated to discuss emotions. • Indirect objects and direct objects: They promised to show us their slides. • Subject and Complement: I would like her to determine her own goals.
Try it out! • Write one sentence for each function: • Infinitive as subject • Infinitive as direct object • Infinitive as predicate nominative • Infinitive as object of the prep • Infinitive as an appositive